GTY 154

Created by serfassm 

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___ is the term for the movement of older people to the Sun Belt.
A. aging in place
B. Geographic movement
C. residential movement
D. migratory stream

D. Migratory Stream

___ was passed in 1974 to curb problems associated with defined pension plans.
A. Employee Retirement Fund
B. Employee Retirement Security Act
C.Employee Retirement Income Security Act
D. Employee Security Act

C. Employee Retirement Income Security Act

The ____ were pioneers in a man's world. They had strong career ambitions and guarded against distractions.
A. innovators
B. traditionalists
C. retreatists
D. expansives

A. innovators

_____ is a common problem in older men.
A. erectile dysfunction
B. sexual intercourse
C. sexual stimulation
D. hormonal loss

A. erectile dysfunction

_____ is the greatest number of years any member of a species has been known to survive.
A. Life expectancy
B. Sex Ratio
C. Life span
D. Cohort

C. Life Span

A ______ displays the age structure of a population
A. Cohort
B. Sex Ratio
C. Population Pyramid
D. Life Span

C. Population Pyramid

________ is the study of population processes- fertility, mortality, and migration.
A. Social Gerontology
B. Age Stratification
C. Demography
D. Life Course

C. Demography

_____intelligence is largely uninfluenced by prior learning.
A. fluid
B. crystallized
C. verbal
D.performance

A. Fluid

"Aging in place" is risky because:
A. the neighborhood becomes more dangerous
B. lack of access to neighborhood services
C. increased social isolation
D. both B & C

D. Both B and C

The ability to reflect on past experience and socialization is:
A.fluid intelligence
B.wisdom
C.crystallized intelligence
D. creativity

C. crystallized intelligence

Abuse of the elderly by caregivers is more likely to involve:
A. physical abuse
B.neglect
C. financial abuse
D. emotional abuse

B. neglect

According the the Demographic Transition, the second stage is characterized by:
A. High birth and death rates
B. Declining births and death rates
C. Low birth and death rates
D. Low birth but high death rates

B. Declining births and death rates

According to Jaber Gubrium's book living and Dying at Murray Manor, the most wrenching loss when moving into a nursing home is:
A. independence
B.friends
C.familiar places
D. familiar furniture or objects

A. Independence

According to research, older people who lose a close relative survive longer when they have intimates ties to a/an:
A. adult child
B.close friend
C.support group
D. siblings

A. Adult child

According to the _____ theory, the aging process is programmed into each cell of our bodies.
A. free radical
B. genetic control
C. cross-linkage
D. immune function

B. genetic control

According to the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization, the main source of payment support for hospice care in 1995 was:
A. private insurance
B. private pay.
C. charitable donations
D. Medicare

D. Medicare

According to the theory of cumulative disadvantage, inequality begins with those who have greater resources and more opportunities to ____ additional resources.
A. occupy
B. own
C. acquire
D. develop

C. Acquire

According to the trait theory, personality can be organized into five major factors. Which of the following is not one of these factors:
A. openness
B. closeness
C. neuroticism
D. conscientiousness

B. closeness

Age discrimination occurs when people act on the basis of negative stereotypes. One common example of age discrimination occurs in:
A. Family Settings
B. The workplace
C. Political activities
D. Leisure Activities

B. The workplace

An age-integrated institution is characterized by:
A. Distinct activities for specific age groups
B. Social norms based on chronological age
C. Absence of chronological age as means of entrance, participation, or exit.
D. social norms based on functional age.

C. Absence of chronological age as means of entrance, participation, or exit.

All of the following are characteristics of longitudinal research designs EXCEPT:
A. They follow a particular group of people over time.
B. They provide data about differences between age cohorts.
C. They are costly.
D. They are factual because of all of the same subjects remain in the study.

D. They are factual because all the same subjects remain in the study.

All of the following are characteristics of social assistance programs EXCEPT:
A. it is indirect payment to individuals through the tax system.
B. Programs under this category contain eligibility criteria.
C. the programs are typically paid through income taxes
D. the social assistance programs derive from sixteenth century British System for poor relief.

A. it is indirect payment to individuals through the tax system.

All of the following are considered to be activities of daily living (ADLs) except:
A. reading
B. bathing
C.eating
D. toileting

A. reading

All of the following are facts about aging EXCEPT:
A. Nearly a third of people 65 or older in nursing homes.
B. The two largest welfare programs in the United States are Social Security and Medicare.
C. Most retirees are busy, active, and satisfied with their lives.
D. Personality is stable. It does not change with age.

A. Nearly a third of people 65 or older are in nursing homes.

All of the following are used to define age with the exception of:
A. Chronological age
B. Functional age
C. Subjective age
D. Cohort age

D. Cohort Age

All of the following ways in which the population age stucture changes except:
A. Fertility rate
B. Mortality rate
C. Sex ratio
D. Migration

C. Sex Ratio

All of the following were factors which contributed to the decline in the fertility rate of women between 1971 and 1980 EXCEPT:
A. birth control pill
B. labor force participation
C. increase in educational opportunities for women
D. the environmental movement

D. The environmental movement

Among older adults
A. political activity increases with increased income
B. political activity decreases with increased income
C. political activity is limited to local issues
D. political activity is limited to national issues

B. Political activity decreases with increased income

Among older adults, studies have found that family members provide more:
A. emotional support
B. financial support
C. instrumental support
D. daily support

C. instrumental support

Among older men and women, regardless of ethnic group, women are less likely to receive income from:
A. pensions
B. assets
C. stocks
D. social security

A pensions

Assisted living facilities are a significant trend in housing for the elderly. All of the following are characteristics of assisted living facilities EXCEPT:
A. they provide social activities and transportation for residents
B. they help residents age in place
C. they retain residents suffering from dementia
D. they provide meals and personal care for residents

C. they retain residents suffering from dementia

Average life expectancy in Africa in the year 2000 was only 46, due in large part to deaths from:
A. Pneumonia
B. HIV/AIDS
C. Avian Flu
D. Polio

B. HIV/AIDS

Benefit levels for social security are determined by a formula that reflects length of time worked and the amount of wages earned.
A. True
B. False

A. True

The best research design to distinguish among age, period, and cohort effects is:
A. cross-sectional
B. longitudinal
C. secondary data
D. participant observation

B. Longitudinal

Board and care homes are a lot like nursing homes.
A. True
B. False

B. False

The branch of psychology that studies mental processes is:
A. experimental
B. behavioral
C. clinical
D.cognitive

D. cognitive

Capatation refers to a method of payment in which reimbursements to health provider is set after the service is provided.
A. True
B. False

B. False

The central clearing house for all national population in the United States is:
A. Center for Disease Control
B. Center for Economic Analyses
C. National Center on Statistics
D. Bureau of Census

D. Bureau of Census

Combining volunteering and paid work leads to even better mental health outcomes than volunteering alone.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Congress passed the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 to address age discrimination in employment.
A. True
B. False

A. True

The continuing care retirement commnuites grew out of the:
A.women's movement
B. social protest movment
C. care concept developed by religious groups for the care of aging lay people and clergy.
D. care concept developed by the political movement, gray panthers, whose founder was maggie kuhn

C. care concept developed by religious groups for the care of aging lay people and clergy.

The continuity theory uses:
A. A life course perspective to define normal aging and to distinguish it from pathological again.
B. Role models to establish how successful older adults are again.
C. Objective test to measure the aging process
D. Subjective test to measure the aging process

A. A life course perspective to define normal aging and to distinguish it from pathological aging.

The convoy model of social support provides emotaional but not tangible support over the life course:
A. True
B. False

B. False

A cross-sectional research design consists of asking people in several age groups the same information
A. True
B. False

A. True

Current debates about how social programs should be allocated center on which two issues:
A. Equity and fiscal alignment
B. Need and equity
C. Age and Need
D. Balance and fiscal responsibility

C. Age and Need

The current spouse and survivor benefits are based on particular family type. It is the:
A. nuclear/traditional family
B. extended family
C. single parent family
D. blended family

A. Nuclear/traditional Family

Date have indicated that women earn lower wages than men. In 2006, women earn ____ percent of what men earned.
A. 77
B. 40
C.10
D. 86

A. 77

The dead are instilled with special powers and considered potentially harmful in many___ societies.
A. agrarian
B.eastern
C.native american
D.preliterate

D. preliterate

The decline in mortality from heart disease varies significantly with level of education.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Defined contribution plans represent a savings plan with some tax advantages. Which of the following is NOT a problem with defined contribution plans?
A. the plan is involuntary
B. the plan is voluntary
C. Workers may withdraw funds before retirement
D. Workers sometimes are encouraged or required to place all their contributions into company stock

A. The plan is involuntary

The degree of difficulty that people experience in performing activities of daily life is:
A. functional capability
B. diagnostic measurement
C. functional status
D.dysfunctional tasks

C. functional status

Demographers currently predict that the ____ will enter retirement with more savings, better pensions coverage, and greater prosepects for inheriting wealth than any other generation.
A. echo boomers
B. baby boomers
C. baby bust cohort
D. silent cohort

B. baby boomers

The Disengagement theory developed by Cummings and Henry states that:
A. It is best for people to stay active and to resist the shrinkage of her social world.
B. Normal aging involves a natural and inevitable withdrawal from people in the social system.
C. Aging is a continuous process
D. People who share similar interests, problems, and concerns age well.

B. Normal aging involves a natural and inevitable withdrawal from people in the social system.

Dual entitle under Social Security refers to men and women who have worked outside the home and are eligible for benefits as well as for benefits as a spouse.
A.True
B. False

A. True

Early studies of mental and physical decline in old age suggest:
A. Decline in old is inevitable
B. Activity in old age does nothing to alleviate mental and physical decline.
C. Most active score highest on measures of life satisfaction
D. Social Roles are not important for understand "normal" aging.

C. Most active score highest on measures of life satisfaction

Elderly parents, grandparents, or spouses may be abused for a number of reasons. Which theory notes that an abuser might have been a victim of abuse in the past and later became the abuser?
A. Learned Violence theory
B. Socialization theory
C. Stressed care-giver hypothesis
D. Dependency hypothesis

A. Learned Violence Theory

The elderly today benefited from the rising tide of prosperity in the post World War II era. Which of the following statements is NOT related to this prosperity?
A. High marriage rates
B. Stable employment histories
C. Stable Low divorce rates
D. Low birth rates

D. low birth rates

The entitlement program debate is really a struggle over the future of Social Security and Medicare
A. True
B. False

A. True

The ethnic group with the highest risk of diabetes, high blood pressure and stroke is:
A. asian americans
B. african americans
C. hispanics/ latinos
D. native americans

B. African Americans

The ethnic group, on the whole, that is healthier than other ethnic groups is:
A. african americans
B.asian americans
C.hispanics/latinos
D.native americans

B. asian americans

An example of age cohort would include all college students on particular campus.
A. True
B. False

B. False

An example of an entitlement program is:
A. community-based home health care
B. Medicare
C. Income tax rebate
D. reverse mortgages

B. Medicare

An example of cohort effect is:
A. An older cohort who believes that living together is wrong, when the younger cohort does not.
B. An older cohort is more likely to perform better on intelligence tests than younger cohorts.
C.The impact of the Civil Rights movement on the The Lancer family during the 1960's.
D. The increase in the need for medical care for our society as people live longer.

A. An older cohort who believes that living together is wrong, when the younger cohort does not.

An example of middle-aged nation population pyramid is:
A. Africa
B. Japan
C. India
D. South Korea

D. South Korea

Feminist Theories:
A. Are formalized theory such as Activity Theory.
B. seek to prove that masculinity and femininity are not social constructed
C. are only studied by women
D. are actually an approach that use theory to illustrate gender differences in decision making and outcomes of men and women

D. Are actually an approach that use theory to illustrate gender differences in decision making and outcomes of men and women

The first major social movement consisting primarily of older people was the Townsend movement.
A. True
B. False

A. True

the first stage of the epidemiological transition is characterized by a decline in deaths from epidemics and famine.
A. True
B. False

B. False

For both the disengagement and activity theories, the_________ is the subject matter.
A. Individual
B. Group
C. Social System
D. Mind

A. Individual

A good example of functional age is:
A. A person between the ages of 65-74
B. Retiring from one's employment at 48
C. At the age of 58, no longer able to run 20 miles.
D. Classifying oneself as "old" or "elderly"

C. At the age of 58, no longer able to run 20 miles

The group among Hispanics/Latinos with the lowest rate of labor force participation and lowest level of education is:
A. Cubans
B. Mexicans
C. Columbians
D. Puerto Ricans

D. Puerto Ricans

Hearing is most acute during the 20s
A. True
B. False

A. True

The highest poverty rate is among:
A. divorced women
B. widowed women
C. single women
D. married women

C. single women

Hispanic/Latinos are sometimes ineligible for Medicare due to:
A. Language barriers
B. Employment in occupations not covered by Social Security.
C. Low wages
D. Low levels of educations

B. Employment in occupations not covered by Social Security

Hospices do NOT provide which of the following services:
A. medications and treatment
B. rehabilitation
C. funeral planning
D. emotional, social, and spiritual support

C. Funeral planning

The ideal housing policy would provide a continuum of services. These services would range from:
A. independent to community-based care.
B. independent to institutional care.
C. semi-independent to community-based care.
D. semi-independent to institutional care.

B. Independent to institutional care

If there are disorders in the sequencing of the life events, there may be negative consequences for later life transitions.
A. True
B. False

A. Ture

In a recent study done regarding the intensity of exercise vs the quantity, what did the researchers discover?
A. that the amount of exercise one does may be more important that the intensity
B. that the intensity of exercise made the biggest difference
C. that there are no limits on how much one can exercise in a week
D.that the quantity of exercise made no significant difference in the aerobic fitness of the patients.

A. that the amount of exercise one does may be more important that the intensity.

In the last 40 years, there has been a vast improvement in the economic position of the aged.
A. True
B. False

A. True

The increase in female life expectancy has numerous consequences. All of the following are consequences EXCEPT:
A. The majority of older women are single
B. The majority of older women are married
C. Women without caregivers are likely to be institutionalized
D. older women without spouses have higher poverty rates.

B. the majority of older women are married.

The increase in life expectancy is referred to as the compression of morbidity thesis. Which of the following does NOT contribute to a longer life expectancy?
A. Advances in medical technology
B.Greater access to health care
C. Greater access to transportation
D. Changes in lifestyles

C. Greater access to transportation

the increase in work among older men can be attributed in part to which of the following?
A. Changes in the social security regulations
B. the rise in standard of living among men
C. the need for men to "prove themselves" in the workplace
D. a rise in the demand for more experienced workers in the labor force

A. changes in the social security regulations

Instrumental activities of daily living involve such tasks as keeping track of money and running errands.
A. True
B. False

A. True

the largest older adult voluntary organization is the:
A. National Council of Senior Citizens.
B. Gray Panthers
C. National Association of Retired Federal Employees.
D. American Association of Retired Persons.

D. American Association of Retired Persons

The leading cause of death in the United States for the 65 and older population is:
A. cancer
B. heart disease
C. stroke
D. influenza and pneumonia

A. heart disease

The life course of individuals is shaped entirely by the individual
A. True
B. False

B. False

The Long Island Long-Term Marriage Survey found that the happiest couples are those who share their lives and have compatible interest and values.
A. True
B. False

A. True

A main component of the hospice philosophy is:
A. pain management
B. depression management
C. withdrawal management
D. anger management

A. Pain Management

The main role of old age interest groups has been that of:
A. lobbying for benefits
B. winning for new benefits
C. protecting existing benefits
D. proposing new benefits

C. Protecting existing benefits

A major criticism of political economy theory:
A. ignores public polices
B. it ignores individual actors and their motivation.
C. it ignores the status of the elderly.
D. it ignores the economy.

B. it ignores individual actors and their motivation

A major problem with continuing care retirement communities is the:
A. staff
B. cost
C.social activities
D. range of services

B. cost

Marital satisfaction varies in retirement. Which of the following categories has the highest level of well-being in retirement?
A. Wives and husbands who retire together and share household chores
B. WIves who continue to work after husband retire
C. Husbands who continue to work after wives retire
D. Wives and husbands, who are retired, yet continue to work

A. Wives and husbands who retire together and share household chores.

The measure of the number of years a person can expect to live without a disability is termed active life expectancy:
A. True
B. False

A. True

Medicare is national health insurance program for all people 62 years and older who are also eligible for Social Security.
A. True
B. False

B. False

Meicare contains Part A,B, and C. Part B pays for which of the following:
A. Hospitalization
B. Doctor's office visit
C. Nursing home care
D. Community-based service care

B. Doctors's office visit

Middle aged parents who interact regularly with their parents provide a source of:
A. socialization for the children
B. role model for the children
C. social identity for the children
D. well-being for the children

B. Role model for the children

The most cited reason for disability in older people is:
A. diabetes
B. declining vision
C. hearing loss
D. arthritis

D. arthritis

The most controversial element of the continuity theory is the definition of:
A. activity
B. successful aging
C. life satisfaction
D. normal aging

D. Normal aging

The most important factor in determining subjective age identity is:
A. Income
B. Health
C. Marital Status
D. Education

B. Health

The most important predictor of sexual activity among older women is:
A. health
B. physical appearance
C. marital status
D. economic status

C. marital status

The most negative transition to retirement is experienced by:
A. umarried people
B. poor people
C. involuntary retirees.
D. unhealthy people

C. Involuntary retirees

Most people are involved in bother age-intergrated and age-segregated activities.
A. True
B. False

A. True

The most recent change to Medicare was the addition of Medicare Part D, which added:
A. coverage for family members
B. a prescription drug benefit
C. coverage for medical equipment
D.coverage for physical therapy

B. a prescription drug benefit

Most recent immigrants to the U.S. can trace their ancestry to:
A. Europe
B. Africa
C.Asia
D. Asia and Latin America

D. Asia and Latin America

Most residents of board and care home are:
A. divorces caucasian females
B.widowed caucasian females
C. single caucasian females
D. married caucasian females

B. Widowed caucasian females

Mrs. Moth recently became a grandmother. The best term to define the change in her life is:
A. Social role
B. Functional age
C. Chronological age
D. Subjective age

A. Social role

Native Americans tend to live on reservations in which they are isolated from other groups and have little change to economic growth. Due to these factors, among ethnic groups, Native Americans have the highest umemployment and:
A. disability rates
B. birth rates
C. mortality rates
D. suicide rates

C. Mortality Rates

New researce suggest individuals experience stages of identity development differently depending on their race, ethnicity, gender, and social circumstances.
A. True
B. False

A. True

The number of people who smoke has steadily been declining for the last 20 years.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Often on the hands of older people one may see purple bruises. They are called:
A. lentigo
B. malignant melanoma
C. neurons
D.senile purpura

D. senile purpura

Older ____ are more likely to die from excessive heat.
A. women
B. men
C. men who live alone
D. women in institutions

A. women

Older people are ____ likely of all age groups to support a social movement.
A. more
B. highly
C. least
D. rarely

C. Least

Older people are less computer savvy than younger people. Which of the following is NOT a reason for this lack of computer expertise?
A. older people have had less exposure to new technologies and feel less confident about their abilities to use the computer.
B. older people take longer to complete computer training
C. older people lack the money to purchase a computer
D. older people have more problems working with computers mouse due to motor control and manual dexterity.

C. Older people lack the money to purchase a computer.

Older people are more likely to engage in bloc voting than any other age group.
A. True
B. False

B. False

Older women are much more likely than older men to live:
A. alone
B. with children
C. with siblings
D. in a retirement home

A. Alone

The ombudsman program protects against abuse in nursing homes. All of the following are duties of the ombudsman EXCEPT:
A. monitoring the quality of care in nursing homes.
B. terminating abusive employees
C. reporting complaints to other regulatory agencies.
D. gathering information

B. Terminating abusive employees

One of the advantages of continuing care retirement communities is the friendship networks. These friends are frequently determined by:
A. gender
B.chronological age
C. social class
D. marital status

D. marital status

One of the changes contributing to the decrease in the Social Security trust fund is decline in the birthrate
A. True
B. False

A. True

One of the most pressing issues of the quality of life in the twenty-first century is:
A. income
B. social support
C. health care
D. housing

C. health care

One of the reasons women tend to be more depressed then men is:
A. women have more biological tendencies to be depressed
B. Men are more likely than women to remarry if widowed or divorced, so have more social support.
C. men have stronger emotional constitutions so dont get depressed as easy.
D. women watch too many sad movies and this makes them depressed

B. men are more likely than women to remarry if widowed or divorced, so have more social support.

One reason that SSI doesnt adequately protect the poorest elderly is:
A. people spend the money too quickly when they get it.
B. payments are eliminated if the recipient lives with a relative
C. many older people are unwilling to undergo a means test, because it is embarrassing
D. the program is set up so that the payments only come once a year

C. many older people are unwilling to under a means test because it is embarrassing.

One study examining stress for women caring for a parent with Alzheimer's disease found that the greatest source of stress was:
A. Caregivers spouses
B. Children
C. Siblings
D. Spouse of parent

C. siblings

One theory which seeks to explain why inequality increases with age is the:
A. Age stratification theory
B. Age inequality theory
C. Cumulative disadvantage theory
D.Demographic transition theory

C. Cumulative Disadvantage Theory

Over the last 15 years the racial differences in mortality rate (higher mortality rates for African Americans) has:
A. declined for men but not women
B. declined for both men and women
C. increased significantly
D. stated the same

B. declined for both men and women

People are more likely than ever to grow older in four or even five generation family. This phenomenon is termed:
A. horizontalization
B. family life cycle
C. extended family
D. bean pole family

D. bean pole family

The political economy theories view old age as socially constructed process created through power struggles.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Poverty increases among women if they divorce. Which of the following statements does NOT reflect the eligibility requirements for spousal benefit after a divorce?
A. they must be at least 60 years old.
B. they must have been married for 10 years
C. they must not be currently married
D. they must not be currently employed

D. They must not be currently employed

The primary caregiver, in all studies, usually are:
A. sons
B. siblings
C. women
D. friends

C. women

The primary policy tool of government are the power to tax and power to spend.
A. True
B. False

A. True

A process in which workers can scale back their work responsibilities in order to ease into full retirement is termed:
A. bridge jobs
B. contingent work
C. consultant work
D. phased retirement

D. phased retirement

The process of entering a nursing home as a private pay, depleting one's income and access and becoming poor, is known as:
A.medical downsizing
B. Financial downsizing
C. Spending up
D. Spending down

D. spending down

The prosperity for some Asian groups can be explained by the high value they emphasize on:
A. investment/saving
B. family support system
C. hard work
D. education

D. Education

Pruchno's study found that the primary reason grandparents began caring for their grandchildren was due to:
A. economic crises
B. Spouse abuse
C.Drug or alcohol addiction
D. mental illness

C. Drug or alcohol addiction

The racial differences in diet, smoking, and activity level can almost always be explained by differences in:
A.life style
B. education
C. income
D. occupation

B. education

Rates of depression are especially high among:
A. widowed females and males
B. nursing home residents
C. older adults who have never married
D. low income older adults

B. Nursing home residents

Recent studies have found the exchange theory useful in explaining:
A. social support and transition between generations.
B. Gender differences in the aging process
C. retirement patterns of different cohorts.
D. the decline in the status of adults

A. Social Support and transition between generations

reducing benefits is another option to preserve Social Security. Which group of people are likely to be the most adversely affected by reducing benefits?
A. low income elderly
B.middle income elderly
C.upper income elderly
D. corporate elderly

A. Low income elderly

The replacement rate for Social Security refers to the amount of pre-retirement pay that is replaced by Social Security. For low wage earners, the replacement rate is _____ when compared to higher wage earners.
A. lower
B. higher
C. none.
D. the same

B. Higher

Research has found that children's books consistently portray the elderly:
A. In a positive and non-stereotypical fashion
B. In a stereotypical and negative fashion
C. In a realistic and positive fashion

B. In a stereotypical and negative fashion

Research has shown that he highest quality of care is provided in homes operated by:
A. profit-making companies
B.nonprofit organizations
C.small "mom and pop" teams
D. educational organizations

B. nonprofit organizations

Research shows that families do not withdraw support when home and community based services are provided, but the disabled elderly receive more care.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Research studies in 2002 found that hormone replacement therapy increased the risk of:
A. heart disease and stroke
B. arthritis
C. throat cancer
D. diabetes

A. heart disease and stroke

Retrospective voting is a type of bloc voting and occurs when:
A. voters give votes to candidates based on promises made.
B. the elderly voters withhold votes to candidates based on judgement of past performance.
C. voters tell their friends not to vote for a candidate based on past performance
D. elderly voters do not vote but think about the past time in which they have voted.

B. The elderly voters withhold votes to candidates based on judgement of past performance.

The risk of divorce is higher during the :
A. middle years of marriage
B. early years of marriage
C. later years of marriage

B. early years of marriage

Saving rates are lower among the elderly because they spend their money on:
A. health care and housing
B. Their children
C. Vacations
D. Jewelry

A. health care and housing

Several studies have found social support to have a positive effect on the cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems.
A. True
B. False

A. True

The social constructionist approach views the individual:
A. as capable of interpreting his/her social reality.
B. as incapable of defining his/her social reality.
C. perspective on rational choice
D. perspective on non-rational choice

A. as capable of interpreting his/her social reality

Social insurance programs have, as their main purpose, to:
A. provide help to individuals who meet certain means tests.
B. provide economic security over the life course and prevent people from falling into destitution.
C. provide economic security to people during their middle years of the life course
D. provide a tax break to individuals

B. provide economic security over the life course and prevent people from falling into destitution

Social Security is an old age government program meant to reduce later life poverty.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Some studies have found that physicians have a/an ____ view of older people.
A. uncaring
B. childlike
C. biased
D. unhealthy

C. Biased

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