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Test 4 Questions and Answers

Define Government

a formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws.

True or False- The Administrative Branch is a part of the U.S. Government

False

Which social theorist described three ideal types of legitimate authority?

Max Weber

What are some characteristics of a Democracy?

-Individuals are the best judges of their own interests and participate in decisions.
-Citizens select leaders who are responsive to the wishes of the majority of the people.
-Suffrage is universal, and elections are free, fair, secret, and occur frequently.
-The government recognizes individual rights such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and organizing political parties whose members compete for public office

The governments of Burma, Cuba, North Korea, and Libya are examples of

Totalitarianism

Define Authoritarianism

a political system in which the state controls the lives of its citizens but generally permits some degree of individual freedom

The _____ Party believes that the government should provide social programs; the _____ Party believes that the federal government should not be involved in social programs.

Democratic;Republican

Define Pluralism

a political system where power is distributed among a variety of competing groups.

The wealthy control politics." This statement reflects which sociological perspective of political power?

The Power Elite

In U.S. presidential elections, the most important factor in winning is

Money

Define Economy

a social institution that determines how a society produces, distributes, and consumes goods and services.

_____ is an economic system where wealth is in private hands and is invested and reinvested to produce profits.

Capitalism

A/n _____ is a situation where one person or company controls a particular market or industry.

Monopoly

_____ is an economic and political system based on the principle of the public ownership of the production of goods and services.

Socialism

Who predicted that communism would dominate because exploited workers would revolt against capitalism.

Karl Marx

What refers to the growth and spread of investment, trade, production, communication, and new technology.

Globalization

_____ is a process of social and economic change due to the reduction of industrial activity, especially manufacturing.

Deindustrialization

Oliver works a full-time day shift at a fast food restaurant. He has a college degree and training in electrical engineering. Oliver is

Underemployed

Women make up about _____ percent of all workers in the United States.

43

"Capitalism brings prosperity to a society." This statement best represents the views of which sociological theory on work and the economy?

Functionalist

"Low wages alienate workers." This statement best represents the views of which sociological theory on work and the economy?

Conflict Theory

Who of the following is most likely to have lost a job during the current recession?

A Black man, who is a construction worker, with no college education.

The textbook defines family as an "intimate group in which two or more people" do all of the following except

"live together in a committed relationship."
["have a legal relationship."]
"care for one another and any children."
"share close emotional ties and functions."

Which of the following is not a function of the family?

sexual regulation
reproduction
[religious placement]
socialization
social placement

Annie and Brandon recently married and are living with his parents. This is an example of a/n _____ residence pattern.

Patrilocal

Christina graduated from college last year. She moved back into her parents' home while she looks for a job. Christina is part of the

Boomerang Generation

In _____, prospective spouses can compare the "value" of eligible partners before selecting a mate.

Marriage Market

Compared with divorce rates between 1970 and 1990, divorce rates in 2008 were

Lower

No-fault divorce is a/n _____ reason for some divorces.

Macro-Level

Early age at marriage is a/n _____ reason for some divorces.

Demographic

The average age at first marriage is _____ for men, and _____ for women.

28; 26

Nearly _____ in ten American children are born to unmarried mothers.

Four

Which one of the following is the most likely to value familism?

Latino Families

True or False- Women are more likely than men to sustain serious physical injuries as a result of intimate partner violence.

True

_____ is a social institution that transmits culture to its members through formal and systematic training.

Education

Which of the following questions might a conflict theorist ask about education?

What are the benefits of education?
[Why does education serve some people better than others?]
What content is covered in the classroom?
Where should schools be located?
How do students and teachers communicate?

_____capital refers to social assets, such as an elite education.

Cultural

Which of the following is not a latent function of education?

Schools provide child care.
High schools and colleges are matchmaking institutions.
Educational institutions create social networks.
[Education increases upward mobility.]
Education is good for businesses.

Because of _____, teachers now spend much of their time on basic reading and math skills instead of higher order learning.

The No Child Left Behind Act

True or False- Seventeen-year-olds are performing better in reading and math than their counterparts did in the early 1970s.

False

Recent surveys have found that _____ of high school students admit to cheating on tests.

60%

True or False- The typical U.S. curriculum is too demanding and rigorous.

False

What is the main idea in the article named "Has the Power Elite Become Diverse?"

Although the power elite became diverse, they endorse the same values of those already in power.

True or False-
In the article "Why You Voted" by Andrew Perrin, one of the reasons that Americans vote is for ritual purpose.

True

The personal experience of the article "Nickel-and Dimes: On (Not) Getting By in America" tells us that

-the wages of working class people are enough to live.
-working class people do not work hard enough to make more money.
-Working class jobs are not as stressful.
NONE of these.

In the article "The Service Society and the Changing Experience of Work", the author argues that

-U.S. economy has changed from manufacturing to service industries.
-There are two tiers in service sector, one is core, and the other is periphery.
-White males tend to be in core service jobs than non-whites and females.

The main idea in "The Unfinished Revolution - How a New Generation is Reshaping Family, Work, and Gender in America" is

Women want a balance of economic autonomy and emotional commitment. AND
Men want a 'neotraditional' family arrangement.

True or False- In the article "The Myth of the Missing Black Father", the authors found out that black fathers may not live with their children, but they do visit them often.

False

True or False- The main idea of the article "Historic Reversals, Accelerating Resegregation, and the Need for New Integration Strategies" is that school segregation is getting better than before.

False

The research result in article "Charter Schools and the Public Good" show that

Charter schools students perform worse than traditional public schools students.

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