an approach to psychotherapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self insight
a variety of therapies wich aim to imprive psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth
empathic listening in which the listener echoes restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
unconditional positive regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgemental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; including exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid.
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. commonly used to treat phobias
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior (nausea with alcohol)
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges and treats
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumptions that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at other family members
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back toward their average
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
evidence based practice
clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences.
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of sever thought disorder
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters.
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner-brain.