Sociology Final

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What were the two major goals for instituting public education in America during the 1800's?

It was to produce more educated workers and Americanize immigrants

What term did sociologist Randall Collins apply to industrailized nations due to their tendency to use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs?

Credential societies

Yoko attends grade school in Japan. Which values of Japanese culture would she learn in her classes?

Solidarity with the group and team effort

In the least industrialized nations, who is most likely to aprticipate in formal education programs beyond the first couple of grades?

Primarily the wealthy because of the relative high cost of education in these nations

What is the process of passing a nation's core values from one generation to the next such as respect for private property, individuality, and competition through the school system?

Cultural transmission of values

Edinboro University of Pennsylvania has one of the largest enrollments of disabled students in the US. This extracurricular activity include wheelchair athhetics and the special needs of all students are met through an extensive office of disabilities. What term applies to Edinboro's effort to incorporate students with disabilities into regular school activities?

Mainsttreaming

According to functionalists, why is social placement of gate-keeping generally beneficial to society?

it ensures that most capable people fill the most important positions

What term did Durkheim use to describe any group of people united by their religious practices, whether they be Hindu dipping in the Ganges River, Buddhists bowing before a shrine or Aztecs sacridicing a verin to the Gods?

Moral community

What is a sudden awareness of the supernatural or feeling of coming in contact with God?

Religious experience

In Moronica, the government subsidizes the one major religion. To be elected to political office, the constitution of Moronica requires the candidate to be a member of the Church of Moronica. Based on this, what type of religious group applies best to describe the Church of Moronica?

ecclesia

What impact did the introduction of the potato have on the demography of Europe?

It caused Europe's population to soar as fertility increased and the death rate dropped

What is the basic formula of the Malthus theorem?

Population grows geometrically while food supply grows arithmetically

Maria lives in a country that has high birth rates and low death rates. Her country would be in which stage of demographic transition?

Second

The Gerad company has decided to build a new factory in the part of the city that is considered a problem area. They applied for a loan but were refused. THe refusal of this loan is an example of

Redlining

Of the five categories of city-dwellers in Gan's typology, which two do not live inthe city by choice?

The deprived and trapped

Around what city would you most likely find a mandatory green belt intended to prevent urban sprawl?

London

Generally around the globe there are 105 boys born for every 100 girls. Recently in some countries, this ratio has been altered with a much larger proportion of boys being born. WHat is the primary reason for the shift to a high proportion of male births?

The practice of female infanticide

What invention made cities possible

The plow

What is the minimum population to be classified as a megacity

10 million

What is the fastest frowing city in the US?`

Provo, UT

The city of Brownstown has several centers of activities. On the west side of town there is a cluster of retail stores and a residential district. All of the factories are located on the east side of town. The city follows the _____ mode of urban growth.

multiple-nuclei

What is the process where one group of people replaces a group whose racial, ethnic or social class characteristics differ from their own and then this group is later replaced by another group

Invasion-succession cycle

Which of the following is a driving force behind social change?

technology

What do sociologists call the sweeping changes in society ushered in by the industrial revolution that included the rise of capitalism, the accumulation of large surpluses and the development of distinct social classes?

Modernization

Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding a comparison of traditional and modern societies?

The view of morals is relativistic in modern societies: in traditional societies, it is absolute

Since WWII what has been the term applied to the realignment of hte world's powers?

geopolitics

Which tehorist proposed that society shifted Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft because of the invention of capitalism?

Ferdinand Tonnies

OVer the past several years there has been a worldwide women's movement that seeks to end patriarchy and advance the concept of feminism. What classification best applies to this movement?

Transnational social movement

What is the purpose of propaganda as it applies to how the term is used in social movements, political campaigns, and by governments today?

Propaganda is one-sided and distorts reality in favor of who controls it

What does the author suggest for future societies and the development of new technology?

To seek harmony between technology and the natural environment

Free education was part of the founding of the American republic and guaranteed under the Constitution.

False

Education's most obvious manifest function is to provide a nation system of child care that permits both parents to hold fulltime jobs (t/f)

False

Sociologists study religion in an effort to determine which ideology best explains the meaning of the hereafter

False

Weber referred to the self denying approach to life as his protestant ethic

True

Because science is now able to answer virtually every concern people have about religious membership it will steadily decline in the years to come

False

Conflict theorists stress that education reproduces a country's class system

true

Most students in community colleges are nontraditional students 25 years or older, employed and attending college on a part time basis

True

The concept of social placement is most aligned with the conflict perspective because it encourages and maintains social inequalities

False

The Malthus theorem states that the food supply increases arithmetically while population grows geometrically, whcih will eventually result in world wide starvation

True

THe devastating tsunami in 2004 was natures way of reducing the most populated areas of the world and stabilizing world population growth for at least one generation

False

In every country that industrializes, birth rate increases

false

The pulls of urban life include variety, diversity and anonymity

true

The advent of the industrial revolution increased the number of megacities from about a dozen in 1800 to more than 30 by 1950

flase

Suburbanization is a product of industrialization, first appearing in the early 1900s when people began to abandon the idealism of urban life

false

Two public policy programs intended to counteract deindustrialization are urban renewal and enterprise zone

true

Cosmolite is a term used by Herbert Gans to describe groups of people united by race and social class who live in tight knit groups in cities (t/f)

false

Sociologist Julius Wilson identified suburbanization as the reason why the inner city was transformed into a ghetto

true

Modernization refers to the sweeping changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution

true

The formal organization of world powers currently called the group of 8 will be the group 9 with the addition of Russia

false

Of the theories used to explain social change, evolutionary theory has the greatest support among sociologists

False

Social movements are relatively consistent from year to year in respect to their numbers and effects on the societies where they develop

False

The spread of Islamic fundamentalism in the late 20th century and facism in the 1930s are both examples of meta-formative social movements

True

Based on William Ogburn's theory of cultural lag, cultural values, norms and beliefs change first followed by changes in the material culture

False

A redemptive social movement targets society and seeks only to change some specific aspect of it

False

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