what is Africa's rank in size compared to the other continents on Earth?
2nd in size
what is Africa's size compared to the US?
over 3 times bigger
how many independent nations are in this continent?
what bodies of water surround Africa?
ne- Red Sea
e- Indian Ocean
w- Atlantic Ocean
what are the 5 main geographic regions in Africa?
1. North Africa
2. West Africa
3. East Africa
4. Central Africa
5. Southern Africa
what landforms make up most of the African continent?
what is the name of the steep cliffs that divide this landform from the coastal plains?
what is the name of the waterfalls and rapids that form as the rivers move to the ocean?
what is the longest river in the world?
what are other key rivers?
a. Congo River
b. Niger River
c. Zambezi River
why are these important to the people who live near them?
a. hydroelectric power
b. irrigate crops
c. hydroelectric power
what mineral resources do African nations produce and what countries do they come from?
a. copper - DEM. Rep. of Congo
b. diamond - South Africa, DEM. Rep. of Congo, Botswana
c. cobalt - South Africa, DEM. Rep. of Congo, Botswana
what are 3 latitudes that cross through Africa?
tropic of Capricorn, Equator, Tropic of Cancer
what are the 4 major climate zones in Africa?
tropical wet, tropical wet & dry, desert, mediterranean
in which climate zone da rain forests thrive?
what is leaching?
what are 3 things that cause problems for the people who live in the rainforest?
a. disease carrying insects
b. dampness causes clothing to rot
c. insects as termites attack furniture or wooden buildings
what is the name of the largest climate zone area in Africa?
tropical wet & dry
what is the name of the grassland area in this region and how much of Africa does it cover?
the Savanna; almost 1/2 the continent
define a drought
prolonged periods of little or no rainfall
what is decertification?
to turn semidesert land into desert
what people do that causes it to happen?
cut down trees for fuel and to clear land for farm also they let cows graze in the grass
how much of Africa is covered by desert?
which desert in Africa is larger then the continental U.S.?
the Sahara Desert
which climate zone area of Africa has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters?
where is this area located on the continent?
southern tip, along the northern coast
what were the 5 basic types of societies in Africa?
d. hunting & food gathering
e. urban (city)
why did the people cross the sahara desert to go to Taghaza?
to get salt
what main resources did the savanna have?
where did the first powerful kingdom develop?
open plains between Senegal and the Niger River
what titles/names were used to refer to the ruler?
King of the gold/ Ghana
what name was the land later called?
what groups attacked this kingdom in 1076?
what empire did the Mandingos set up?
who ruled the empire for 25 years?
what religion did he adopt?
what new empire arose in West Africa after the decline of the Mandingos?
who was the leader when the empire reached its peak?
what group caused this empire to rise in 1591?
why were they able to defeat the people?
they had guns and cannons, when Songhai only had spears and arrows
what kingdom developed in the delta region of the Niger river?
who was considered the most glorious ruler of this kingdom?
what was another name for the ruler?
what is a city-state?
a large town that has it own government and usually controls surrounding countryside
what were the famous East African city-states?
Malindi, Mombassa, Kilwa, Sofala
what European group took over many of the East African city-states in the 1500's?
what does Zimbabwe mean?
Great Stone House
how did most of the people who lived in the area make a living?
farming and herding
why was religion important t people in African societies?
helped unit societies; helped people understand their origin
what role did oral traditions and myths play in society?
taught moral truths about right and wrong
why did many people turn to lesser gods and spirits in African society?
people believed that a Supreme Being created the world
what role did ancestors play in Africans lives?
they were scared of them or help them; they though they had to say the right prayers to please them
how did Africans feel about nature and objects on Earth?
they thought it was precios because the Supreme Being made it
what was the role of diviners in African society?
they explained the cause of misfortune & served as interpreters between people & the divined world
what was the role of healers in African society?
if someone fell ill a healer would seek the cause. He or she studies how members of the sick person's family go along the healer would help the family become aware of the problem and find a solution
when did islam arrive in Africa?
what is jihad and why is it used?
its holy war to purify Islam
why were the Portugese interested in Africa in the 1400's?
to look for a way to get around India; also wanted gold
what were the 2 main reasons why slavery existed in Africa?
a. got captured in war
b. sold themselves in times of famine
how were slaves treated in African society?
as servants rather than property
why did slavery become less profitable in Africa?
they needed Africa's raw materials
scattering of people
how did the survivors of the slave trade hold on to their culture in the Africa diaspora?
customs, idea, beliefs, spread to other parts of the world through music, food, religion, and art
who was the British doctor that spent much of his time in Africa?
what did Livingstone want to accomplish?
a. open up highways for commerce
b. spread christianity into the interior of Africa
what is the name of the river where the doctor discovered huge waterfalls and what did he call them?
zambezi river; victoria falls
what was the english name that Africans called the waterfalls?
the smoke that thunders
what are the 2 African countries that were not claimed by Europeans control?
Liberia & Ethiopia
how many countries attended the Berlin Conference?
what was the main reason for the conference?
so that Europeans could make decisions about how to divide Africa
which African country was successful in resisting European control?
why were they successful?
the empire hired Europeans to train and arm the troops
what 3 groups were involved in a power struggle in Southern Africa?
a. Dutch (Boers)
c. local African groups
whats the name of the African group that built an empire northeast of the Orange River?
who was their leader?
where did the Dutch colonize in 1625?
what European group took over the area in the 1800's?
what was the name of the journey the Dutch took northward from this area?
The Great Trek
why did the African group lose battles to keep their lands in the Orange Free State and the Transvall?
the Dutch and the British joined forces
what was discovered in South Africa that caused the British to be interested in the area?
people started to find diamonds & gold
what was the name of the war that occurred in 1902?
what groups were involved in the war?
the British & the Dutch
who won the war?
what are the 2 names of the methods used by Europeans to rule their colonies and tell how each work?
a. direct rule- colonial power; governors get elected to watch villiges
b. indirect rule- left traditional rule in place
what were 4 materials improvements made by Europeans in Africa?
c. transportation & communication
what improvements were made by Europeans for the growth of Africa?
b. medical care
c. improve sanitation
d. improve water systems
what was the slogan used bt African nationalists in the early 1900's?
"africa for the Africans"
what are the 5 independent countries in 1950?
d. South Africa
what is the first black African nation to win its independence in 1957?
what is the name os the idea to unite African countries politicly?
which African nation did not join the Organization of African Unity?
South Africa (they joined in 1994)
what are 2 things that developed African nations in the UN wanted?
a. access to new technology
b. sell their manufactured goods, controlled by the industrial world
what was the policy of most African countries to the superpowers during the Cold War?
nonalignment: they did not favor either side
what are 3 ongoing problems African countries are feeling?
a. limiting family sizes
b. increasing food production
c. fighting disease
how many years did Mandela spend in prison?
what are the racial groups and their percentages by population?
mixed racial backgrounds- 11%
what was the name of the rigid separation of the races in South Africa called & how did the system work?
apartheid; the government classified all South Africans as black, white, "colored", or asians, they also passed laws to keep the races separated
what laws were used to control the movement of blacks in a town or a city in South Africa?
which 2 black South Africans won the Noble Peace Prize?
b. Archbishop Desmond Tutu
what did the international community do to pressure South Africa to change its' racial situation?
a. the OAU urged members to boycott South Africa
b. groups pressed for change
c. UN placed an arms embargo- countries that the UN couldn't sell to South Africa
d. sports org. such the Olympic Committee banned South African athletes from all competition
what historic changes did the governments make in the mid-1800's and early 90's to achieve racial equality?
a. repealed pass laws
b. opened some segregated facilities to all South Africans
c. lifted bans on the ANC
d. freed Mandela and other ANC leaders
what 2 things happened in 1990 & 1994 that made history in South Africa?
a. new constitution was written to give blacks basic rights
b. blacks voted for the 1st time
what 3 main problems did Mandela have to deal with when he was President of South Africa?
a. the gap between the rich and the poor is very big
b. ethnic and political tension lead to violence
c. economic problems in the late 1990's
when did Mandela retire and how old was he?