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The system used by psychologists to classify psychological disorders is the

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)

Kimberly constantly thinks her immaculate house is dirty and spends most of her day cleaning, scrubbing, and straightening up. She could be diagnosed as having

obsessive-compulsive disorder

The conditioning and learning explanation for the etiology of anxiety disorders BEST accounts for the development and maintenance of

phobic disorder

The psychological disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with one's health and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses is

hypochondriasis

The class of psychological disorders characterized by people losing contact with portions of their consciousness or memory which results in disruption in their sense of identity is

dissociative disorders

Frank witnessed a horrible car accident but cannot remember anything about it. Frank appears to have

dissociative amnesia

After several weeks of feeling gloomy and being socially withdrawn, Marco has suddenly become extremely sociable and talkative. He doesn't seem to need any sleep, and he becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down. Marco's behavior is consistent with

bipolar disorder

The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by

disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or at birth.

The prevalence estimates of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are roughly comparable across diverse cultures. This finding lends support to

the pancultural view of psychological disorders.

Research suggests that parents of children who develop eating disorders

are overly involved in their children's lives.

The difference between a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and a phobic disorder is that in GAD the individual knows what is producing the anxiety and can avoid the threat.

False

Somatoform disorders are physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors.

True

In individuals with dissociative identity disorder, the experiences of any one specific personality are often only recalled by that personality and not by the others.

True

Low levels of serotonin and reduced hippocampal volume appear to be associated with most forms of depression.

True

The catatonic subtype of schizophrenia is the most commonly occurring subtype.

False

Scientific theories are MOST directly associated with which goal of science?

understanding and prediction

Operational definitions are MOST closely associated with which major advantage of the scientific approach?

clarity and precision

Which of the following is an example of an independent variable that can be manipulated?

amount of exposure to caffeine

A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the rats' maze-running performance is the

dependent variable.

In experimental research, subjects that do not receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable are the

control group.

One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is

the artificial, contrived situations in which experiments are often conducted.

If A and B are highly correlated, which statement MOST accurately describes the relationship between A and B?

the score on A can be used to predict the score on B

Dr. Redding has found a correlation of +0.65 between snoring and weight. This indicates that

overweight individuals tend to snore more than underweight individuals.

The primary reason descriptive/correlational research cannot determine conclusively that variables have a cause-and-effect relationship is because in conducting research

the researcher cannot control events or manipulate variables.

The primary reason for the ethical dilemmas psychologists encounter regarding the use of deception in research reflects concerns

about the possibility of inflicting harm on human subjects.

The abstract of a journal article provides

a concise summary of the entire article.

Which section of a journal article involving psychological research provides a brief summary of the research project?

abstract

Which of the following statements concerning anecdotal evidence is FALSE?

Anecdotal evidence rarely influences a person's opinion or behavior.

A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is called a theory.

False

The fifth and final step in conducting scientific research is to analyze the data and draw conclusions.

False

In an experiment, the control group consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.

False

The best way to reduce the risk of experimenter bias is to use a double-blind research procedure.

True

Self-report methods are useful in psychology, but can be problematic due to the tendency for people to give socially appropriate answers.

True

A person high in achievement motivation would be expected to show all but which of the following characteristics?

tendency to seek immediate gratification

People high in the need for achievement prefer _____ tasks since these tasks provide an appropriate combination of probability of success and incentive value for success.

moderately difficult

It is MOST accurate to describe a polygraph as

an emotion detector.

The idea that muscles of the face send information to the brain and that this affects the emotion we feel is known as

the facial feedback hypothesis.

Studies by evolutionary theorists of which of the following topics have drawn the MOST attention?

sexual behavior

Ekman, who has conducted a number of studies of facial expressions associated with emotions, found

six fundamental emotions that most everyone agrees on.

According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion,

emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and to the autonomic nervous system.

Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion suggests that we distinguish between the experience of different emotions on the basis of

our interpretation of the situation.

Research on happiness suggests that _____ are more important than _____.

subjective feelings; objective realities

CCK is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the communication of satiety in the hunger response.

True

Drive theories emphasize how internal states pull people in certain directions, while incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli push people in certain directions.

False

People have a limited number of biological needs, and people all over the world share the same basic biological motives.

True

Current research suggests that stress-induced eating is less common among people who are chronic dieters.

False

Women are more likely then men to experience more than one orgasm in a brief period of time.

True

There is some evidence that people who place an especially strong emphasis on the pursuit of wealth and materialistic goals tend to be somewhat less happy than others.

True

The notion that the subject matter of psychology should be the scientific study of conscious experience is MOST closely linked with

Wilhelm Wundt.

The _____ believed that consciousness developed in humans because it serves a useful purpose.

functionalists

Watson defined psychology as the scientific study of

behavior

Lisa taught her son to buckle his seat belt in the car by only allowing him to play one of his tapes on the car stereo after he was buckled up. Lisa taught him by applying the principles of

behaviorism.

Which pair of terms reflects the observation that "psychology returned to its roots" in the latter part of the 20th century?

cognitive perspective and biological perspective

Which of the following is NOT a major area of interest in the positive psychology movement?

positive life events

A psychologist who specializes in psychometrics is MOST likely to be interested in

the development of psychological tests to measure intelligence or personality traits.

Which of the following areas of specializations in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers?

educational psychology

Which of the following BEST describes the unifying theme that "psychology evolves in a socio-historical context"?

psychology and society both influence each other

According to Wilhelm Wundt, psychology's primary focus should be the scientific study of mental processes.

True

Functionalists relied heavily on the method of introspection to understand the nature and function of conscious processes.

False

A strict behaviorist would view nature as more important than nurture in determining an individual's observable responses to a given stimulus.

False

One of the main criticisms raised concerning both behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory is that these views are dehumanizing.

True

Until the 1950s and 1960s the dominance of behaviorism discouraged the study of mental processes in psychology.

True

In which class of problems is it necessary to carry out a sequence of intermediate actions in order to solve the problem?

transformation

Functional fixedness is the

tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.

A shortcut, "rule of thumb," or guiding principle used in solving problems or making decisions is

a heuristic.

In order to decide which car to buy, Jim makes a list of desired qualities and rates each of the cars he is considering on a scale of one to ten. After totaling the points each car receives on all the desired qualities, he is going to purchase the car with the most points. Jim is using the ______ strategy of decision-making.

additive

You have settled on two different cereal choices, fruit loops and cheerios. In order to choose between them you make a list of each of the cereal's attributes and rate the desirability of each trait. What strategy are you using?

additive

The tendency to overestimate the probability of improbable events reflects the influence of the

availability heuristic.

Which of the following heuristics has been shown by evolutionary psychologists to be both simple and surprisingly effective?

recognition heuristic

John, who has an IQ of 107, is BEST described as having

average intelligence.

Adoption studies comparing the intelligence of adopted children to their _____ provide support for the role of genetic factors in intelligence.

biological parents

Alex is very skilled at dealing effectively with the problems he encounters in everyday life. Sternberg would be MOST likely to predict that Alex has high

practical intelligence.

The failure to recognize that you can use a tool as a weight is an example of the problem-solving barrier known as functional fixedness.

True

Heuristics are guiding principles or "rules of thumb" used in solving problems or making decisions.

True

The availability heuristic involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.

False

When people rely on the recognition heuristic, they infer that alternatives that are recognized have a higher value than alternatives that are not recognized.

True

Identical twins reared apart are more similar in IQ than fraternal twins reared together.

True

If the heritability ratio of intelligence is 70%, this means that for you, as an individual, heredity determines 70% of your intelligence.

False

If a person views three lights that differ only in amplitude, the person would perceive the lights as

differing in brightness.

Courtney wears glasses to correct the far-sightedness in her left eye. If she were not wearing her glasses

the lens would focus images behind the retina in her left eye.

Poor Courtney :c

Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.

rod cells; cone cells

Cells in the visual cortex that respond to lines of a specific width and angle of orientation that are located at any position in a receptive field are

complex cells.

The action of the visual receptors in the first stages of processing tends to support the

trichromatic theory of color vision.

Feature analysis assumes that we progress from individual elements to the whole in the formation of our perceptions. This is a case of

bottom-up processing.

When watching a wild car chase scene in a movie we can be thankful for_____, which allows us to experience the illusion of movement.

the phi phenomenon

A perceptual hypothesis

is an inference about what form could be responsible for a pattern of visual stimulation.

When your psychology professor is lecturing to your class, your professor can tell which students are sitting in the first, second, third, etc., row, in part because students in the closer rows obstruct his/her view of students in more distant rows. This illustrates the depth perception cue of

interposition.

When we view cars parked on a distant parking lot we know that the cars are not actually the size of toy cars because of a perceptual

constancy.

A summary of the development of psychologists' understanding of color vision and pitch perception BEST illustrates which unifying theme in psychology?

psychology is theoretically diverse

Vision begins when electromagnetic wave energy enters the eye through the cornea and pupil and is focused on the retina by the lens.

True

Approximately 90% of the axons from each retina travel through the superior colliculus before traveling to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and on to the primary cortex.

False

Color is a physical property of light.

False

Impossible figures are objects that exist in three-dimensional space but cannot be accurately represented in two-dimensional pictures.

False

Both the brightness of a color and the loudness of a sound are related to the physical property of amplitude.

True

At the end of the _____ stage of prenatal development, the developing organism is about one inch long and has already developed most of the vital organs and bodily structures.

embryonic

Developing structures generally are most vulnerable to damage from environmental factors during the _____ of prenatal development.

embryonic stage

Which of the following is NOT associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy?

heart defects

During Erikson's crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt, a child should begin to take some responsibility for his feeding and dressing. As a result, the child should gain a sense of self-sufficiency. This stage occurs from _____ years of age.

1 - 3

Systematic problem-solving efforts are associated with individuals in the _____ stage of cognitive development.

formal operational

Suggesting that a poor man who stole food to feed his family was right, because human life takes precedence over rules, is an example of

postconventional moral reasoning.

The adolescent growth spurt begins and puberty occurs approximately _____ in females than in males.

two years earlier

Harry has always been a vital and active individual. Recently however, he has begun having difficulty remembering newly learned information after brief periods of time. What disorder are his symptoms indicative of?

Alzheimer's disease

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

males tend to exhibit slightly better verbal skills than females

Cognitive theories of gender role development emphasize

self-socialization.

During the second phase of prenatal development most of the vital organs and body systems begin to form in the developing embryo.

True

Cross-cultural studies of infant attachment suggest that attachment is universal, and that attachment patterns are not influenced by a culture's child-rearing practices.

False

Centration, irreversibility, and egocentrism are basic flaws associated with concrete operational thinking.

False

Boys and girls who mature late seem to experience more subjective distress and emotional difficulties with the transition to adolescence than other adolescents.

False

Some studies have found that males tend to exhibit more cerebral specialization than females.

True

The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is

encoding - storage - retrieval

Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as a method to enrich encoding of to-be-stored information?

rote memorization

The observation that when a flashlight is waved quickly through the air in a circular pattern, you perceive a circle of light and not just a "single point" of light is consistent with the functioning of your

sensory memory.

Rehearsal is MOST beneficial for maintaining information in _____ memory.

short-term

The _____ component of working memory serves as the interface between working and long-term memory.

episodic buffer

The idea that when you think about a word it triggers related words is referred to as

spreading activation within a semantic network

If you try to remember something but cannot, yet know the information is in memory, you are experiencing the

tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

If you incorrectly recall your psychology professor as saying "Psychology is a poor choice for a college major," when in reality it was really your philosophy professor who made the statement, you would be making a

source-monitoring error.

Decay theory proposes that forgetting occurs due to

the passage of time.

Which area of the brain is associated with the consolidation of long-term memories?

hippocampal region

According to Craik and Lockhart's levels-of-processing theory, semantic encoding is a relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus.

False

In Baddeley's modularized view of working memory, the temporary store that serves as an interface between working memory and long-term memory is the executive control system.

False

Information in long term memory has been shown to be organized in schemas.

True

Decay theory proposes that forgetting occurs due to the fact that memory traces fade over time; while interference theory argues that forgetting takes place because of competition from other material in long term memory.

True

In a study of psychiatric patients hospitalized for post-traumatic or dissociated disorders, one-third of those who reported childhood abuse had experienced complete amnesia for the abuse at some point in their lives.

True

Research on physical attractiveness has shown that

we tend to ascribe desirable personality characteristics to good-looking people.

Jill assumes her new biology professor is probably studious and somewhat introverted just like her other professors. Jill's assumption is based on

a stereotype.

Consistent with the fundamental attribution error, when an acquaintance fails an exam, you would tend to attribute their failure to the _____ and if you fail an exam, you would tend to attribute your failure to the _____.

lack of intelligence; difficulty of the exam

According to Hazan and Shaver's model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults with which of the following attachment styles are most likely to have satisfying, interdependent, and long-lasting relationships?

secure

In general, messages that present _____ arguments are effective in persuasion because that style of argument tends to increase the credibility of the source.

two-sided

In Milgram's (1963) study of obedience, subjects

were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks to a stranger.

In his Stanford Prison study Zimbardo found that

situational factors have a powerful impact on social behavior.

Research on the bystander effect indicates that the probability of receiving needed help

decreases as group size increases.

Censoring dissent, pressuring to conform, omitting contradictory evidence, and polarizing ingroup and outgroup are basic features of which of the following?

groupthink

Behaviors that encourage prejudice and discrimination occur most frequently following threats to an individual's

social identity.

People from individualist cultures appear to be less prone to the fundamental attribution error and more prone to use the self-serving bias.

False

Individuals' perceptions of their romantic partners seem to reflect their ideals for a partner more than reality.

True

Sternberg argues that intimacy reaches its peak in the early phases of love and then erodes.

False

According to Hazan and Shaver, romantic love is an attachment process, and people's intimate relationships in adulthood follow the same form as their attachments to their preschool playmates.

False

The elaboration likelihood model of attitude change suggests that the central route to persuasion is associated with more enduring attitude change.

True

Insulation is to hot water pipes as the _____ is to an axon

synapse

The part of the neuron that has branched extensions that are specialized to receive information are the

dendrites.

The space between a terminal button and a dendrite is referred to as the

synaptic cleft.

Sensory information is carried from your eyes to your brain by way of

afferent fibers.

Generally speaking, the presynaptic receptor refers to the receptor located on the neuron that _____ the neurotransmitter, whereas the postsynaptic receptor refers to the receptor located on the neuron that _____ a neurotransmitter.

releases, receives

Which of the following is NOT a structure of the hindbrain?

cerebrum

The rewarding effects of electrical stimulation of the brain seem to be mediated by

activation of dopamine-releasing neurons.

Theodore suffered a stroke recently, and now he finds he constantly hears a buzzing sound in his ears. In this case, it is likely that the stroke occurred in Theodore's

temporal lobe.

When an object is placed unseen in the left hand of a person who has had split-brain surgery, the person will

not be able to describe it.

The "master gland" of the endocrine system is the

pituitary gland.

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