Revival of City States brought about what 3 things?
Alphabet, Intense Colonization, Revival of Trade
Organization of Sparta
All men were in the army, tried to prevent native revolt, tried to be self-sufficient
Government belonged to people, bare-minimum, slaves worked to free up citizens
5th century war. Greeks Vs Persians.
During this war, both Greek and Persian cities got completely ruined.
Making sure people actually knew what they were talking about
Plato's theories of forms
Ideas that said that the truth comes from the mind's spiritual beliefs. Obsessed with numbers and formulas.
Aristotle's theory of knowledge
Believed that there was no such thing as supernaturalism and everything could be explained
Father of history who questioned why things actually happened
Ancient Greek theater
All roles were played by males, wore masks called personas, never showed deaths onstage
The legacy of ancient Greece
Greeks were more about optimism and freedoms, and had high regard to the individual
Mixture of Greek, Asian and Egyptians
Achaemenid Persian Empire
Conquered a large area, had most of SW Asia and Egypt
A religion that believed in Ahura Mazda (wise lord), Angra Mainyus (creator of evil), and the belief in a savior
Successors to Alexander
Alexander left no son, so his 3 main generals took over and divided it up
Lived life without attachments
Everything in life had meaning to them. Things happened for a reason
Just enjoy life, no meaning in anything living
Achievements of Hellenic civilization included...
Improvements in medicines, math, and astronomy
Had the Senate and Assembly.
Rome wanted all of Italy and tried to expand. Lead to a break down of the Republic due to expansive size. The gap between the rich and the poor became great.
Comprised of Civil Law (law of Roman citizens), Law of Peoples (everyone in Roman territories), and Natural Law (all people are created equal).
Roman Empire in the 3rd century was...
Struck by epidemics, the plague took out 1/4 of the population, economic problems, and civil war
The legacy of Rome
Brought Greek to the west (Arabs), to Europe, and mixed Greek ideas with Roman laws
Legalized Christianity and tried to make it the main religion
The Apostle Paul
Founder of Christianity and emphasized on personal salvation saying that anyone who wasn't a christian was going to hell
Early Christian doctrinal disputes
Had many different ideas on who Jesus was and what he did
Christianity in the 4th century
Increased the number of saints and relics and brought about Monasticism
Christianization of the Roman Empire
Conformity to the Christian church was required
The Germanic Invasions
Decline in trade and the central government was weakened
Emperor of the 6th century. He ruled all empire and published Roman Law. He built a cathedral in Constantinople which later became the main architecture in most mosques and churches
India under the Gupta dynasty
Was the Golden Age of India. Increased trade with Near East and Asia
China after the Han dynasty
Increased trade with India and the Near East. Good government that was the largest and most advanced at the time. Created silk, gun powder, the compass, and paper
Early Chinese influence on Japan
Created a central government that was the only Japanese dynasty. China and Japan's relations increased. Japanese writing used Chinese system.
Cultural lag in sub-Saharan Africa
Due to the bad environment there was no advancement due to lack of surplus. Population was sparce. Disease was great
Civilization in sub-Saharan Africa
Thanks to SE Asian foods coming, life increased. Iron was developed. No domestic-able life
Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Used Greek language
Efficient government. Due to crossroads location, high trade quality. Able rulers
Preserved Greek thoughts and learning. Continued language and research. Civilized many areas
Five Pillars of Islam
Testamony, Prayer, Fasting, Almsgiving, Pilgrimage
Islamic and Christian differences
Islam has no original sin and thinks people are responsibile for their own sins. Jesus isn't the son of God to Islams. Islams think one human isn't better than another.
Sectarian Divisions of Islam
Sunni (85%) and Shiites (15%)
Spread of Islamic Civilization
Had broad appeal since anyone is welcome. The use of Arabic as a lingua franca helped the spread
The Franks and the papacy
Western Catholics became friends of the pope since the French leader was Catholic. Allies with Rome
Charlemagne extended French land. Became the emperor because the pope wanted the power to do it. Developed the Carolingian writing system
Western European agricultural revolution
Increased population and wealth. New crops increased the diet which lengthens life span. Better technology and diversity in crops
Revival of western European trade
Longer distance trade with northern Europeans
Western European feudalism
Had a system of decentralized government. Kings wanted people to serve them in exchange for having land. Land owners had fiefs
Norman Conquest of England
Angles and Saxons invaded Germany along with Danes. English language was created by combining French with Anglo-Saxon. Germanic invasions stopped in 1066
French and English feudalism
Created stability after Rome fell apart. Had improved stability and got more people involved. No uniformity with plenty of change allowed