Early American History Final Exam

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Lewis and Clark Expedition

1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.

Andrew Jackson

7th President of the United States; called for the Trail of Tears along with creating the spoils system.

Trail of Tears

Cherokees' own term for their forced removal 1838-1839, from the Southwest to Indian lands (later Oklahoma); of 15,000 forced to march, 4,000 died on the way.

Nullification Crisis

Concept of individualism of a federal law within the borders of a state; first expounded in Thomas Jefferson's draft of Kentucky resolution against Alien and Sedetion Acts

Alien and Sedition Acts

Four measures passed during the undeclared war with France that limited the freedoms of speech and press and restricted the liberty of noncitizens

Spoils system

The term-meaning the filling of federal government jobs with persons loyal to the party of the president-originated in Andrew Jackson's first term.

Whig party

Founded in 1834 to unite factions opposed to President Andrew Jackson, the party favored federal responsibility for internal improvements; the party ceased to exist by the late 1850's, when party members divided over the slavery issue.

Market revolution

the major change in the US economy produced by people's beginning to buy and sell goods rather than make them for themselves

Wage labor

a system of payment whereby workers are compensated on the bases of a wage not tied to the quality of the raw materials, accidents, or other exigencies in the production process

Lowell Mill Girls

mostly from the New England States; their fathers did not want to have to pay for them to live with them until they got married, and sent them to work at the Lowell Mill, where the girls lived, worked, and ate; they got little time for meals and sleep, and worked long hours in the factory all year

Eli Whitney

United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)

Cotton Gin

Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, the machine separated cotton seed from cotton fiber, speeding cotton processing and making profitable the cultivation of the more hardy, but difficult to clean, short-staple cotton; led directly to the dramatic nineteenth-century expansion of slavery in the south

California Gold Rush

1849 (San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country to San Francisco.

Homestead Act

Authorized Congress to grant 160 acres of public land to a western settler, who had to live on the land for five years to establish title.

Republic of Texas

Created March, 1836 but not recognized until the next month after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join the U.S. in 1845.

Manifest Destiny

Phrase first used in 1845 to urge annexation of Texas, used thereafter to encourage American settlement of European colonial and Indian lands in the Great Plains and the West and, more generally, as a justification for American empire.

Know Nothings

Nativist, anti-Catholic third party organized in 1854 in reaction to large scale German and Irsih immigration; the party's only presidential candidate was Millard Filmore in 1856.

Irish Potato Famine

A famine in 1845 when the main crop of Ireland, potatoes, was destroyed by disease. Irish farmers grew other food items, such as wheat and oats, but Great Britain required them to export those items to them, leaving nothing for the Irish to live on. As a result, over 1 million Irish died of starvation or disease, while millions of others migrated to the United States.

Election Days in the 1800's

No women were there because they could not vote, men drank and voted like it was a festival event.

Second Great Awakening

Religious revival movement of the early decades of the nineteenth century, in reaction to the growth of secularism and rationalist religion; began the pre-dominance of the Baptist and Methodist churches

Abolition

social movement of the pre-Civil War era that advocated the immediate emancipation of the slaves and their incorporation into American society as equal citizens

Temperance

abstinence from alcohol self-control moderation

Shakers

Founded by Mother Ann Lee in England, the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing settled in Watervilet, New York in 1774 and subsequently established eighteen additional communities in the Northeast Indiana, and Kentucky

Grimke Sisters

Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.

Dorthea Dix

Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.

Mormons

Founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith, the sect (officialy, the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints) was a product of the intense revivalism of the "burned over district" of New York; Smith's successor Bringham Young led 15,000 followers to Utah in 1847 to escape persecution

Seneca Falls Convention

First women's rights meeting and the genesis of the women's sufferage movement; held in July 1848 in a church in Seneca Falls, New York ,organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Coffin Mott

Declaration of Sentiments

all men and women are created equal; Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott- suffrage, hold political office, married women can hold property in their name, manage own incomes, legal guardians of own children

Frederick Douglass

one of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.

P.T. Barnum

the famous and unscrupulous showman, opened the American Museum in New York in 1842, not a showcase for art or nature, but a great freak show populated by midgets, Siamese twins, magicians, and ventriloquists, eventually launching his famous circus

Mexican-American War

Controvercial war with Mexico for control of California and New Mexico, 1846-1848; the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo fixed the border at the Rio Grande and extended the United States to the Pacific Coast, annexing more than a half-million square miles of Mexican territory

Mexican Cession

historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. this massive land grab was significant because the question of extending slavery into newly acquired territories had become the leading national political issue.

Missouri Compromise

Deal propossed by Kentucky seantor Henry Clay in 1820 to resolve the slave/free imbalance in Congress that would result from Missouri's admission as a slave state; Maine's admission as a free state offset Missouri, and slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the Louisana Territory north of the southern border of Missouri

Wilmot Proviso

Proposal to prohibit slavery in any land acquired in the Mexican War, but southern senators, led by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, defeated the measure in 1846 and 1847

Kansas-Nebraska Act

Law sponsored by Illinois senator Stephen A. Douglas to allow settlers in newly organized territories north of the Missouri border to decide slavery issue for themselves; fury over the resulting repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 led to violence in Kansas and to the formation of the Republican Party.

Compromise of 1850

Complex compromise devised by Senator Henry Clay that admitted California as a free state, included a stronger fugitive slave law, and delayed determination of the slave status of the New Mexico and Utah territories

Fugative Slave Act

Gave federal government authority in cases invloving runaway slaves; aroused considerable opposition in the North

Sumner/Brooks Affair

1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Harriet Beecher Stowe's 1852 antislavery novel poularized the abolitionist movement

Bleeding Kansas

Violence began pro- and antislavery settlers in the Kansas Territory, 1856

Slave power conspiracy

using the South's power to pass pro-slavery measures; the idea that the South was engaged in a conspiracy to extend slavery throughout the nation and thus to destroy the openness of northern capitalism and replace it with the closed, aristocratic system of the south, and the only solution was to fight the spread of slavery and extend the nation's democratic ideals to all sections of the country.

Republican Pary

Organized in 1854 by antislavery Whigs, Democrats, and Free Soilers in response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act; nominated John C. Fremont for president in 1856 and Abraham Lincoln in 1860

Dred Scott Decision

U.S Supreme Court decision in which Chief Justice Roger B. Taney ruled that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories, on the grounds that such a prohibition would violate the Fifth Amendment rights of slaveholders, and that no black person could be a citizen of the United States

John Brown

An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory

Harpers Ferry

Site of abolitionist John Brown's failed raid on the federal arsenal, October 16-17, 1859; Brown became a martyr to his cause after his capture and execution

Mary Chesnut

influential southern woman who kept a diary of her life on the Confederate home front

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

Series of senatorial campaign debates in 1858 focusing on the issue of slavery in the territories; held in Illinois between Republican Abraham Lincoln, who made a national reputation for himself, and an incumbent Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas, who managed to hold onto his seat

Civil War

The period of warfare between the Confederate States of America (1861-1865) and the United States over the issues of states' rights and slavery.

Confederate States of America

a republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States

Fort Sumter

First battle of the Civil War, in which the federal fort in Charelston (South Carolina) Harbor was captured by the Confederates on April 14, 1861, after two days of shelling

Battle of Bull Run

First land engagement of the Civil War took place on July 21, 1861, at Manassas Junction, Virginia, at which Union troops quickly retreated; one year later, on August 29-30, Confederates captured the federal supply depot and forced Union troops back to Washington

Battle of Antietam

One of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War, fought to a standoff on September 17, 1862, in western Maryland

Battle of Gettysburg

Fought in southern Pennsylvania, July 1-3, 1863; the Confederate defeat and the simultaneous loss at Vicksburg marked the military turning point of the Civil War

Emancipation Proclimation

President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary proclimation on September 22, 1863, the date of the final proclimation, which also authorized the enrollment of black soldiers into the Union army

Siege of Vicksburg

a Union victory in the Civil War thsat enabled that enabled the Union to control the entire Mississippi River

Sherman's "March to the Sea"

After the burning of Atlanta Georgia on Nov 15 1864, he marched 300 miles to savannah and arrived there December 22nd 1864 with the 1st alabama cavalry regiment.

Sand Creek

was an incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the eastern plains.

Appomattox Courthouse

A town in Virginia where Lee surrendered what was left of his forces. Nine days later, near Durham, North Carolina, Johnston surrendered to Sherman.

Freedman's Bureau

Reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care, and landowning

Sharecropping

Type of farming tendancy in which landless workers--often former slaves--farmed land in exchange for farm supplies and a share of the crop

Reconstruction Acts

Established temporary military governments in ten Confederate states--excepting Tennessee--and required that the states, ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and permit freedom to vote.

Radical Reconstruction

Provided for dividing states into military districts with military commanders to oversee voter registration that included adult African-American males for state conventions; state conventions to draft constitutions that provided for suffrage for black men; state legislatures to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.

Black Codes

Laws passed in southern states to restrict the rights of former slaves; to nullify the codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment

13th Amendment

Constitutional Amendment adopted in 1865 that irrevocably abolished slavery throughout the United States

14th Amendment

Guranteed rights of citizenship to former slaves, in words similar to those of the Civil Rights Act of 1866

15th Amendment

Constitutional Amendment ratified in 1870, which prohibited states from discriminating voting privileges on the basis of race

Ku Klux Klan

Organized in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1866 to terrotize former slaves who voted and held political offices during Reconstruction

Redeemers

Conservative white Democrats, many of them planters of buisnessmen, who reclaimed control of the South following the end of Reconstruction

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