Ch. 1, 2, 3

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Intro, Chemical level of organization, Cellular level of organization

a temperature receptor in the skin

An example of a sensor in a negative feedback loop that controls body temperature is __________

Negative

__________ feedback control reduces variations away from a desired physiological state.

prone

A patient placed face down is in the __________ position.

left upper

The spleen is located in the __________ quadrant.

lateral

The lungs are __________ to the heart.

All of these organs are in the thoracic cavity

Which of these organs is in the thoracic cavity?
esophagus
thymus
trachea
All of these organs are in the thoracic cavity

peritoneum

The membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called the __________.

kidney

Which of these organs is retroperitoneal in location?
urinary bladder
kidney
large intestine
stomach

heart

Visceral pericardium covers the __________

Extrinsic

________ regulation results from the activities of the nervous or endocrine system.

Intrinsic

________ regulation occurs when the activities of organs are regulated locally.

receptor,control center,effector

Homeostatic regulation usually involves a(n) ________ that detects a particular stimulus, and a(n) ________ that responds to the stimulus by communicating with a(n) ________ whose activity has an effect on the same stimulus.

negative feedback

When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of

directs long-term responses to change.

In general, the nervous system does each of the following, except
directs very specific responses.
helps to maintain homeostasis.
responds rapidly to change.
directs long-term responses to change.
responds rapidly to change and directs very specific responses.

Terminologia Anatomica

The ________ serves as a worldwide official standard of anatomical vocabulary.

cytology.

The analysis of the internal structure of individual cells is called

histology

The study of tissues with a microscope is called __________

surface

The study of the general form and superficial markings of an organism is called ________ anatomy

regional

The study of the superficial and internal features in a specific area of the body is called ________ anatomy.

pathological

Anatomical features that change during illness are studied in ________ anatomy.

embryology

The study of the first two months of development is termed

systemic physiology

The study of the function of specific organ systems is called

systemic physiology

Cardiovascular physiology is an example of

MRI

An imaging technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce views inside the body is the

downward

While standing erect, the direction of caudal is

right upper

The liver is primarily located in the ________ quadrant.

prone

A person lying face down is in the ________ position.

both pericardial cavity and pleural cavities.

The thoracic cavity contains the

pelvic cavity.
coelom.
pericardial cavity.
pleural cavities.
both pericardial cavity and pleural cavities.

heart

A midsagittal section would pass through the

pelvic quadrant.

The quadrants of the abdominopelvic region include all of the following except
right upper quadrant (RUQ).
right lower quadrant (RLQ).
left lower quadrant (LLQ).
left upper quadrant (LUQ).
pelvic quadrant.

upper

Which of the following is not considered an abdominopelvic region?

transverse

Which plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts?

anterior

An anatomical term that means the same as ventral:

medial

The heart is ________ to the lungs.

positive

This type of feedback exaggerates the effects of variations from normal

effector

A cell or organ that responds to commands of the control center in negative feedback is termed a(n)

hypothalamus.

The integrating center for the negative feedback loop that regulates body temperature is the

temperature sensors on the skin that detect a stimulus

An example of a receptor in a negative feedback loop controlling body temperature would be

respiratory

Which organ system removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream?

digestive

Lungs are to the respiratory system as the liver is to the ________ system.

endocrine

The pituitary gland and thyroid gland are organs of the ________ system.

urinary

The kidneys and ureters are organs of the ________ system.

lymphatic

Which organ system includes the spleen and the tonsils?

cardiovascular

Which organ system transports nutrients, metabolic wastes, gases, and defense cells?

skeletal

Which organ system provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage, and blood formation?

organism, system, organ, tissue, cellular, molecular

Which of the following is arranged in correct order from the most COMPLEX to the SIMPLEST?
cellular, tissue, molecular, system, organ, organism
molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism
organism, system, organ, tissue, cellular, molecular
organ, organism, molecular, cellular, tissue, system
tissue, cellular, molecular, organ, system, organism

digestive

The salivary glands and the stomach are organs of the _________ system.

produces a more rapid response than the nervous system

Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of the endocrine system?
produces a more rapid response than the nervous system
important homeostatic system
produces effects that last for days or longer
produces an effect that involves several organs or tissues at the same time
releases chemical messengers called hormones

sagittal

Which plane divides the body into right and left parts?

right lower; left lower

The urinary bladder is found in the ________ quadrant and the ________ quadrant.

parasagittal

A cut parallel to the midsagittal plane would produce a(n) ________ section.

cheek

The common term for the buccal region is the ________

thoracic cavity; abdominopelvic cavity

The muscle known as the diaphragm separates the ________ from the ________

pericardial sac

Identify a structure located within the mediastinum.

right lung

The right pleural cavity contains the

on the heart itself

Visceral pericardium is located

separates the pleural cavities and contains the pericardial cavity

The mediastinum

thoracic and abdominopelvic

The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the

Atoms

__________ are the smallest stable units of ordinary matter

nuclei

Radioactive atoms have unstable __________

protons

The "atomic number" of an atom is determined by the number of ________ it has.

neutrons in the nucleus

Isotopes of an element differ in the number of

protons + neutrons.

The mass number represents the number of

2

The innermost electron shell in an atom holds up to ________ electrons.

protons + neutrons + electrons

The "atomic weight" of an atom reflects the average number of

hydrogen

Which element commonly has only a proton as its nucleus?

silicon, fluorine, tin

Indicate which of these lists contains only trace elements.
selenium, hydrogen, calcium
boron, oxygen, carbon
sulfur, chlorine, oxygen
silicon, fluorine, tin
cobalt, calcium, sodium

protons and neutrons

The nucleus of an atom consists of

10-9 meter.

A nanometer is

has the same number of atoms

One mole of any element

element

A(n) ________ is a pure substance composed of atoms.

electron cloud

Electrons whirl around the center of the atom at high speed, forming a(n) ________

isotopes

Atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons, are called ________

number of electrons in the outermost electron shell

The chemical properties of an atom are determined by the __________.

positively charged cation

If an atom loses an electron, it becomes a __________

covalent

The strongest bond between two atoms is the __________ bond.

hydrogen

The weakest bond between two atoms is the ________ bond.

electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another

Ionic bonds are formed when

triple covalent bond.

In a molecule of nitrogen, three pairs of electrons are shared by two nitrogen atoms. The type of bond that is formed is an example of a(n)

polar covalent

If a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, a(n) ________ occurs.

inert gases

Elements that have atoms with full outer shells of electrons

covalent bonds

When atoms complete their outer electron shell by sharing electrons, they form

oxygen

By weight, which element is the most plentiful in the human body?

carbon

By weight, which element is the second most abundant in the human body?

an ionic bond is formed

When electrons are transferred from one atom to another, and the two atoms unite as a result of the opposite charges,

+2

Magnesium atoms have two electrons in the outermost shell. As a result, you would expect magnesium to form ions with a charge of

endergonic

Chemical reactions that absorb energy are said to be _________.

a calcium ion that has lost two electrons

In chemical notation, the symbol Ca2+ means ________

water, causing decomposition

In hydrolysis reactions, compounds react with

substrate; active

Before an enzyme can work, a __________ molecule must bind at the __________ site.

Enzymes

________ accelerate chemical reactions that occur in the human body.

A pH of 4 is greater.

Which has the greater concentration of hydrogen ions, a substance with a pH of 5 or a substance with a pH of 4?

C

Which element do organic compounds always contain?

Carbon dioxide

__________ is an example of an inorganic substance.

metabolites

Compounds that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside the body are called

cellular metabolism

Oxygen is required in biological systems for

water

Which compound is essential for all life?

All of the above statements about water are true.

Which of the following statements about water is true?
Water is a good solvent.
Water comprises the largest portion of total body weight.
Water is composed of polar molecules.
All of the above statements about water are true.

has a relatively low heat capacity

Which of the following statements about water is not correct?
can dissolve many substances
contains hydrogen bonds
is responsible for much of the mass of the human body
has a relatively low heat capacity
is composed of polar molecules

thermal inertia

Which property of water helps keep body temperature stabilized?

acidic

A solution containing more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions is __________.

acidic

If a solution has a pH that is lower than 7, the solution is __________.

base; acid

A(n) ________ removes hydrogen ions and a(n) ________ releases hydrogen ions.

strong acid

When placed in water, an inorganic compound dissociates 99 percent, forming hydrogen ions and anions. This compound would be

are the body's most readily available source of energy.

Carbohydrate molecules

glucose

The most important metabolic fuel molecule in the body is

glycogen

A polysaccharide that is formed in liver and muscle cells to store glucose is

organic molecules

Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are classified as

water and carbon dioxide

An example of an inorganic substance is

are generally many times sweeter than sucrose

Artificial sweeteners

triglycerides

Most of the lipid in the human body is in the form of __________

ATP

The most important high-energy compound found in the human body is

cardiovascular

The organ system responsible for internal transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide is the

catalyze reactions

The primary function of enzymes in the extracellular fluid is to

ionic bond

Sodium chloride is an example of:

cytoplasm has a composition different from the extracellular fluid and the differences must be maintained

Isolating the cytoplasm from the surrounding fluid environment by the cell membrane is important because

The sum of all the physical and chemical reactions occurring in the body

Metabolism refers to

stem cells

Relatively unspecialized, undifferentiated cells whose only function is the production of daughter cells

structural support

The cell membrane has which of the following functions

enzymes

The chemical reactions in the human body are controlled by special catalytic molecules called

cytosol and organelles

The cytoplasm includes two major constituents, which are

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids

The four major classes of organic compounds are

Abdominal cavity

The gallbladder lies in the

tissue

An organization of many similar cells that are specialized to perform a certain function is called a(n):

lower

When the chemical reaction occurs with aid of a catalyst, the required activation energy will be

endoplasmic reticulum

Membranous organelles include

microtubules

The primary components of the cytoskeleton, giving the cells strength, rigidity, and anchoring organelles are the

ribosomes

Which of the following are not membranous organelles?

a process in which vesicles formed inside the cell fuse with the cell membrane and discharge their contents outside the cell

Exocytosis is

7.35 - 7.45

Normal body pH is should remain in a range of:

Golgi apparatus

Preparation of protein molecules for cellular exportation is the function of which of the following organelles?

the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

The organelle responsible for a variety of functions centering around the synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates is

the cell

The smallest living unit within the human body is

cytosol

The watery component of the cytoplasm is called

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