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Asa and ruby both sell insurance. Asa is married and has three children and a new house. Ruby is single and has recently purchased a new Lexus. Acing to some industrial psychologists______.

...

On the basis of research evidence, the two basic need categories are____.

Extrinsic and intrinsic needs

According to Alderfers ERG theory, the lowest order need is _____.

Physiological needs

A concert pianist always wanted to play jazz when he got the opportunity to play with a group of New Orleans jazz musicians who were displaced after Hurricane Katrina. He was elated after the experience of playing with the talented jazz musicians. He experienced an ______ reward.

Intrinsic

Paralympics for disabled athletes feel what kind of inequity?

Underreward

How do employees try to restore equity when the perceive that they have been treated unfairly?

By rationalizing inputs or outcomes, changing the referent, simply quitting their jobs, reducing level of energy.

ANSWER IS ALL OF THESE

_____ is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated.

Distributive justice

The _____ states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they are offered attractive rewards.

Expectancy theory

According to the expectancy theory, ____ affect the conscious choices that people make about their motivation.

Valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. VEI

To use the expectancy theory to motivate employees, managers can

systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs

___ is the process of changing behavior by changing the consequences that follow behavior.

Reinforcement

____ is a reinforcement strategy which weakens a behavior over time because the behavior has no consequences, positive or negative.

Extinction

____ says that people will be motivated to the extent to which they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement.

Goal-setting theory

____ is the extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals.

goal acceptance

For the goal setting theory to work, goals must ___.

Focus employees attention on critical aspects of their jobs, energize behavior, create a tension between current state and desired state, be truly accepted by workers.

ALL OF THESE ARE CORRECT

Effective managers define ___ as the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.

Leadership

Which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as apposed to managers)?

Inspiring and motivating others

When Jack Welch went to work for GE, he immediately began to make drastic changes in the company's structure and product lines. He envisioned a bloated, inefficient GE becoming an efficient, profitable organization over time. He inspired and motivated his employees to change. Jack Welch ___.

would be characterized as a leader

According to an article from CIO Magazine, "Leadership grows from courage and integrity." From this opening statement, you know the article will discuss leadership from the ___.

Trait theory viewpoint

Which of the following traits refers to the extent to which leaders are truthful with others?

Honesty

Oftentimes when an individual is running for local political office, he or she promises to consider each issue, make decisions that are good for the entire community, and reduce taxes. When the individual assumes office, he or she is often unable to carry through on political promises, an inability which leads to a perceived problem with___.

Integrity

Leaders who possess the trait of ___ are most decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others' confidence.

Self-Confidence.

Which of the following statements about what makes a successful leader is true?

Successful leaders are confident about their ability to make long-term strategic decisions.

Research at three universities has confirmed that two basic leader behaviors, ___ and ___, are central to successful leadership.

initiating structure; consideration

Which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior?

Employee-centered leadership

Hot Topic, McLaughlin demonstrating ____.

Consideration

Which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?

NONE.

Bloody jack would be viewed by GE's employees as having ___.

Strong position power

John Mack turned the money losing bank into profitable by "goading workers to move out of their comfort zones." and setting challenging goals for them. His high expectations for his employees indicates that Mack used an ____ leadership style.

Achievement-oriented

According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ___ means setting challenging goals, having high expectations of employees, and displaying confidence that employees will assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort.

Achievement-oriented leadership

Hot Topic's McLaughlin uses the ____ style of management.

Participative

The normative decision theory ____.

helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making.

In many organizations, sales managers develop company wide sales forecasts by asking members of the sales force to decide how much growth they anticipate in their individual sales territories. Sales managers then take information supplied by their subordinates. In the normative decision model, this would be an example of a ___ decision making style.

consultative

Which of the following leadership theories uses a decision tree to determine the appropriate level of participation by subordinates in decision making?

Vroom-Yetton-Jago's normative decision model

Koresh used ___ to create the strong relationships between him and his followers who were willing to die for him.

Charismatic Leadership

____ refers to the behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers.

Charismatic leadership

Transformational leaders ____.

are able to make their followers feel they are vital
encourage followers to make sacrifices for the organization
help followers see how their jobs fit vision
get employees to see beyond own needs

Are accurately described by all of these

____ generates awareness and acceptance of a group's purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interest for the good of the group.

Transformational leadership

The last step in the perceptual process is ___.

Retention

___ is the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.

Perception

The steps in the perceptual process in order are___.

Attention, organization, interpretation, and retention.

AOIR

___ is the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that we dont know what is consistent with what we already know.

Closure

In the model of the communication process presented in the text, ___ occurs when a message is put into written, verbal, or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver.

encoding

The ___ is the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information.

formal communication channel

Gore employees don't have titles or bosses in the traditional sense. Instead, associates make commitments to work on projects that they believe are most worthy of their time. As a result of doing away with traditional titles, the company encourages more ___ communication.

Horizontal

In the ___ type of grapevine communication network, numerous people simply tell a few of their friends.

cluster chain

In the ___ type of grapvine communication network, one highly connected individual shares information with many other managers and workers

Gossip chain

Kinesics and para language are two kinds of ___.

nonverbal communication

In nonverbal communication, ___ is the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern of ones voice

paralanguage.

In which of the following cases would written communication be preferable to oral communication?

when messages are very simple.

Which of the following statements about listening is true?

All of these statements are true

When a plant was closed due to a merger, managers at the plant (who were given the opportunity to move to other plants) should have engaged in ___ as employees described the forced changes in lifestyle.

Empathetic Listening

To be a better listener, you should __.

evaluate the message as you hear it.

After some ___ with the event planner, Rubylyn better understood what her job entailed and became a valued employee.

constructive feedback

The first thing that managers need to recognize when communicating feed back one-on-one to employees is that feedback can be ___.

Constructive or destructive

TWCC wanted to solicit ___ from the companies best customers.

Constructive feedback

Which of the following is NOT one of the organization-wide techniques that is regularly used for staying in touch with people throughout the organization. (i.e. hearing what others think and feel)?

surprise visits

The basic control process begins with___.

the establishment of clear standards of performance

These financial projections were ___ for the beverage company.

standards

Companies may determine standards by ___.

benchmarking other companies

an often overlooked factor in determining the cost of control is___.

cybernetic feasibility

____ is the extent to which it is possible to implement each step in the control process.

cybernetic feasibility

which of the following is a method managers can use to achieve control in their organizations?

Bureaucratic, self-control, concertive, normative

ALL OF THESE

____ control is top-down control in which managers try to influence employees behavior by rewarding or punishing employees for compliance or noncompliance with organizational policies, rules, and procedures.

Bureaucratic

An organization that relies heavily on ___ controls is likely to be highly resistant to change and slow to respond to customers and competitors

bureaucratic

___ control is associated with autonomous work groups

Concertive

Which of the following is NOT one of the four perspectives measured in the balances scorecard appraoch to control

policies and procedures perspective

A provider of computer technical support that is using the balanced scorecard approach to control would look at ___.

percentage of employees with training in last year
customer defections
cash flow
percentage of computer owners that request support/5mo

All of these and more

___ controls should be used when it is necessary to standardize operating proceudures and establish limits.

Bureacratic

The librarian in charge of the special collection feels that this new policy will adversely influence the use of the collection in research of the experiences of everyday people during the war. This is an example of the use of control creating ___..

Suboptimization

One of the advantages the balanced scorecard has over traditional control processes that rely solely on financial measures its that it ___.

minimizes the chances of suboptimization

When implementing the financial perspective, managers would use ___.

financial ratios

When dealing with the customer area of the balanced scorecard, the article advised librarians to use customer surveys. Why might this be a poor strategy to use?

Customer surveys are typically misleading, skewed to positive feedback

Standards suggested to use with the ___ area of the balanced scorecard include how quickly and effectively a new service can be offered and how the training staff responds to its introduction

Internal business perspective

The three components of ____ are initiation of effort, direction of effort, and persistence of effort.

motivation

McClellend's Learned Needs Theory identifies three needs. They are needs for ____.

Power, achievement, and affiliation

According to the model of need satisfaction, an unsatisfied need produces ___.

tension

____ are the rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.

intrinsic rewards

According to ___, people will be motivated when they perceive they are being treated fairly.

equity theory

the two basic kinds of inequity are ___.

Underreward and overreward

In equity theory, after an ___ comparison in which they compare their outcomes to their inputs, employees then make an ___ comparison in which they compare their O/I ratios with the O/I ratio of a referent.

internal; external

In expectancy theory, ___ is the perceived relationship between effort and performance.

expectancy.

The two parts of reinforcement are____.

reinforcement contingencies and schedule of reinforcement

____ strengthen behavior (i.e., increase its frequency)

positive and negative reinforcement

A manager who wants to use reinforcement theory to motivate workers should first ___.

identify critical performance-related behavior

A ____ is a target, object, or result

goal

Managers who use goal-setting theory to motivate employees should ___.

make sure workers truly accept organizational goals

The CEOs of these troubled airline companies ___.

are more likely managers than leaders

which of the following statements about leaders and managers is true?

organziations need both leaders and managers

in terms of leadership behavior, the term ___ refers to the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, supportive, and shows concern for employees.

consideration

Which of the following is another term for initiating structure leadership behavior?

concern for production

Research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily ___., consideration impacts primarily on ___.

Job Performance; job satisfaction

Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors are central to successful leadership is true?

These behaviors are referred to as initiating structure and consideration

Which of the following is an example of situational theory of leadership

Fielder's contingency theory

In Fielder's contingency theory, the term ___ refers to the degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and punish workers.

position power

In Fielder's contingency theory, the term ___ refers to the degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members.

situational favorableness

According to ____. leaders need to make clear how followers can achieve organizational goals, take care of problems that prevent followers from achieving goals, and then find more and varied rewards to motivate followers who achieve those goals.

the path-goal theory

According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ___ involves letting employees know precisely what is expected of them giving them specific guidelines for performing tasks, scheduling work, setting standards of performance, and making sure that people follow standard rules and regulations.

Directive leadership

According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ___ involves being friendly and approachable to employees, showing concern for them and their welfare, treating them as equals, and creating a friendly climate

supportive leadership

According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ___ involves consulting employees for their suggestions and inputs before making decisions.

Participative leadership

____ is leadership that creates a positive image of the future that motivates organizational members and proves direction for future planning and goal setting.

Visionary leadership

Two types of visionary leadership are____.

Charismatic leadership and transformational leadership

Research results consistently show ____.

transformational leadership is much more effective on average than transactional leadership.

Which of the following statements about the importance of communication is true?

All of these are true

Which of the following statements about perception and perceptual filters is true

people perceive according to personality-, psychology, and experience-based filters

____ is the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring, screening out, or not accepting inconsistent information.

Selective perception

According to attribution theory, ___ makes managers more likely to attribute to worker's problems or failures to internal rather than external causes.

the fundamental attribution error

According to attribution theory, we use two general reasons for attributions to explain peoples behavior. They are ___.

Internal and external attributions

In the model of the communication process presented in the text, ___ makes senders aware of possible miscommunications and enables them to continue communicating until the receiver understands the intended message.

feedback

Noise can occur when___.

The sender isnt sure what msg to communicate
the receiver doesnt have the time to understand msg
msg not decoded/encoded properly

any of these occur

The three formal communication channels in an organization are categorized as ____.

downward, horizontal, and upward

Coaching is ___.

a kind of one-on-one communication primarily used by managers to improve an employee's on the job performance or behavior

Managers generally like and use ___ but are less receptive to using ___

oral communication; written communication

Which of the following statements about hearing and listening are true?

hearing is the act of perceiving sounds, while listening is the act of making a conscious effort to hear.

Feedback is more likely to be destructive than constructive when it is ___.

Judgmental

____ is the withholding of information about organizational problems or issues by employees

organizational silence

___ is the regulatory process of establishing standards that will achieve organizational goals, comparing actual performance to those standards, and then, if necessary, taking corrective action to restore performance to those standards.

Control

___ are a basis of comparison for measuring the extent to which organizational performance is satisfactory or unsatisfactory

standards

_____ allows a trucking company not only to compare its safety performance with other companies but to also adopt those practices found to be superior

benchmarking

If items have not been sold after a month on display at the store, the items are removed from the store to either be sold at another location or returned to manufacturer. The chain of stores was able to set this standard through ___.

listening to customers

Control is a ___ process.

continuous, dynamic, and cybernetic

Three basic control methods are ___.

Concurrent control, feedback control, and feedforward control

Two workers killed. By gathering info on how the men died in order to prevent recurrence, valero used ___ control.

feedback

___ control is a method of gathering info about performance deficiencies as they occur

concurrent

___ control is a method of gathering information about performance deficiencies before they occur.

feedback

____ costs are the costs associated with implementing or monitoring control.

Regulation

The two types of objective controls managers use are ___.

Behavior and output

____ control regulates workers' actions and routines on the job, while ___ control measures the results of their efforts.

behavior; output

Which of the following statement about normative control is true?

normative control leads to an emphasis on very selective hiring

____ should be used when it is difficult to create good measures of worker behavior and output and when organizational cultures, values, and beliefs are strong.

Concertive control

The balanced scorecard approach to control ___.

forces managers at each level of the company to set specific goals and measure performance in each of four areas

Quality is typically defined and measured in three ways. They are __.

excellence, value, and conformance to expectations

When a company emphasizes ___ as its quality goal, managers must simultaneously control excellence, price, durability, or other features of a product or service that customers strongly associate with it.

Value

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