Ancient Roman general who was defeated and captured in a war between Rome and Carthage
What is the "Roman Spirit"?
Romans were encouraged to behave like heroes. they were to show courage, honor, and loyalty
What two groups were Roman citizens divided into?
The wealthiest, most powerful citizens of Rome
About 90% of Roman citizens were________.
List some characteristics of Plebeians.
1. Merchants, soldiers, farmers
2. Represented by tribunes
3. Rented land
4. Less powerful citizens (not wealthy)
5. Demanded greater rights
List some characteristics of Patricians.
1. Only patricians ran the Roman government.
2. Wealthiest, most powerful citizens
3. chosen as consuls for the Senate
4. created their own armies
5. owned land
A government where citizens have the right to vote, or choose their leaders.
those who are elected to represent the people.
Governing body; representatives serve here.
Was everyone who lived in Rome a citizen?
No. Slaves and most foreigners were not citizens.
Desribe the rights of Roman women.
1. Were citizens
2. Could not vote or hold public office
3. Could own property
4. Could testify in court
officials who managed the government and the army
What power did the consuls have?
each consul had the power to stop the other consul from taking an action that he did not agree with
someone who has total control over the people.
men who were appointed to protect the rights of the plebeians.
Why were plebeians struggling?
the patricians bought much of the land and forced the plebeians to rent it--they struggled to survive
How did the tribunes protect the rights of the plebeians?
Being represented made it easier for the plebeians to become wealthy. That made it easier for them to associate with the patricians.
powerful city-state in North Africa.
What were the Punic Wars?
Three wars fought between Carthage and Rome
Who won all three Punic Wars?
Who was Hannibal?
Carthaginian general who invaded Italy from Spain;
Crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants
Roman general who attacked and defeated Carthage.
How did the Romans turn enemies into friends?
1. Granted some of them Roman citizenship
2. Allowed others to keep a local government
3. Built aqueducts, roads, building in conquered lands.
a sense of pride in one's country
Why would Romans want to make friends with former enemies?
So they would feel patriotic toward Rome
What problems did Rome face that led to the end of the Republic?
Patricians became wealthier, which left very little for the others
Slaves took many of the plebeians jobs
Fighting destroyed homes and farmlands
Romans became poorer as their armies took over new lands
another name for "ruler"
ancient Roman general whose murder led to the end of the Roman Republic.
Why did the patricians worry about Caesar's growing power?
They were worried that Caesar would destroy the republic by taking total power in Rome
How did Caesar die?
He was stabbed to death on the floor of the Senate
What happened to the republic after Caesar's death?
Civil war broke out and several leaders fought for power. The Roman Republic ended.
famous road that stretched more than 350 miles south and then east of Rome.