Anatomy and Physiology Final

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Epimysium

The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds an entire skeletal muscle is the

have many nuclei

Muscle fibers differ from "typical calls" in that muscle fibers

Myoblast

Skeletal muscles fibers are formed from embryonic cells called

Storage and release site for calcium ions

Which of the following best describes the term sarcoplasmic reticulum

Sarcomere

The repeating unit of a skeletal muscle fiber is the

Muscle contraction

Interactions between actin and myosin filaments of the sarcomere are responsible for

H Band

The area in the center of the A band that contains no thin filaments is the

A transverse tubule and two terminal cisternae

The skeletal muscle complex known as the triad consists of

Tropomyosin molecules

At rest, active sites on the actin are blocked by

Troponin molecules

At rest, the tropomyosin molecule is held in place by

Synaptic cleft

The narrow space between the synaptic terminal and the muscle fiber is the

Calcium binds to troponin

Active sites on the actin become available for binding after

Calcium Ions

In response to action potential arriving along the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases

Thin filaments and think filaments

Which of the following become connected by myosin cross-bridges during muscle contraction

A motor unit

A single motor neuron together with all the muscle fibers it innervates is called

Slow

The type of muscle fiber that is most resistant to fatigue is the _________ fiber

Most of the muscle's energy is produced in mitochondria

During activities requiring aerobic endurance

All of the above are characteristics of smooth muscle

Which of the following is not characteristic of smooth muscle?
- Smooth muscles are uninucleate
- Smooth muscles do not contain sarcomeres
-Neurons that innervate smooth muscles are under involuntary control
- Thin filaments of smooth muscle fibers are attached to dense bodies

Plasticity

The ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called

All of the above

When a skeletal muscle fiber contracts,
-the zones of overlap get larger
-the width of the A band remains constant
-the Z lines get closer together
-the H bands and I bands get smaller

Fast fibers

Large-diameter, densely packed myofibrils, large glycogen reserves, and few mitochondria are characteristics of

All of the above

In rigor mortis,
-cross-bridges cycling is absent
-the myosin heads are attached to actin
-ATP is depleted
-Muscles are inextensible

The concentration of calcium ion in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of a resting muscle

Which of the following is greater

Acetylcholine binds to chemically gated channels in the end plate membrane

Triggering of the muscle action potential occurs after

More permeable to sodium ions

When acetylcholine binds to receptors at the motor end plate, the end plate membrane becomes

Direct long-term functions, such as growth

Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system

Somatic

The ________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles.

Afferent

That part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated

Satellite Cells

Which of the following are a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system

Oligondendrocytes

The myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by

Axon hillock

The axon is connected to the cell body at the

Vesicles

Neurotransmitter for release is stored in synaptic

3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions

At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its NA-K ion exchange pump transports

Depolarization and increased positive charge inside the membrane

Opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes

All stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials

The all-or-none principle states that

Calcium

The ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is

Chemical

Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system

Synaptic transmission would fail

If the chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane were completely blocked,

Spatial summation

Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is designated

are local hyperpolarizations

IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)

All of the above

Ions can move across the plasma membrane in which of the following ways
-through chemically-gated channels as in neuromuscular transmission
-through voltage-gated channels as in the action potential
-through passive or leak channels
-by ATP-dependent ion pumps like the sodium-potassium exchange pump

Leak channels

Ion channels that are always open are known as

The rapid depolarization phase is caused by the entry of potassium ions

Which of the following statements about the action potential is false

Loss of sensation and motor control

Extensive damage to oligodendrocytes in the CNS could result in

May be either a depolarization or a hyperpolarization

Graded potentials

The axon would be unable to generate action potentials

Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons

Epimysium

The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds an entire skeletal muscle is the

Muscle contraction

Interactions between actin and myosin filaments of the sarcomere are responsible for

Cardiac muscle stimulation is neural

Which of the following statements is false

Myoblasts

Skeletal muscle fibers are formed from embryonic cells called

Slow fibers

Which type of muscle fibers are best adapted for prolonged contraction such as standing all day?

have many nuclei

Muscle fibers differ from "typical cells" in that muscle fibers

H band

The area in the center of the A band that contains no thin filaments is the

Storage and release site for calcium ions

Which of the following best describes the term sarcoplasmic reticulum

Tropomyosin molecules

At rest, active sites on the actin are blocked by

All of the answers are correct

The thin filaments of striated muscle contain which proteins

All of the answers are correct

When a skeletal muscle fiber contracts,

Plasticity

The ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of length is called

Calcium binds to troponin

Active sites on the actin become available for binding after

Transverse tubules

The action potential is conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by

Calcium ions

In response to action potentials arriving along the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases

Thin and thick filaments

Which of the following become connected by myosin cross-bridges during muscle contraction?

All of the answers are correct:
-the myosin heads are attached to actin
-ATP is depleted
-muscles are inextensible
-cross-bridge cycling is absent

In rigor mortis

Zone of overlap

In a sarcomere, cross-bridge attachment occurs specifically in the

Acetylcholine binds to chemically-gated channels in the end plate membrane

Triggering of the muscle action potential occurs after

3, 5, 1, 4, 6, 2

The following is a list of events that occur during a muscle contraction:
1. Myosin cross-bridges bind to the actin
2. The free myosin head splits ATP
3. Calcium ion is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
4. The myosin head pivots towards the center of the sarcomere.
5. Calcium ion binds to troponin
6. The myosin head binds an ATP molecule and detaches from the actin.

It would cause spastic paralysis (Muscles are contracted and unable to relax)

How would the loss of acetylcholinesterase from the motor end plate affect skeletal muscle

more permeable to sodium ions

When acetylcholine binds to receptors at the motor end plate, the end plate membrane becomes

Reduces the muscles ability for contraction

A patient takes a medication that blocks ACh receptors of skeletal muscle fibers. What is this drugs effect on skeletal muscle contraction?

additional oxygen is required to restore energy reserves consumed during exercise

During the recovery period the bodys need for oxygen is increased because

Synaptic cleft

The narrow space between the synaptic terminal and the muscle fiber is the

Somatic

The __________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles.

Afferent

The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated

Microglia

Small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called

formation of cerebrospinal fluid

Damage to ependymal cells would most likely affect the

astrocytes

The neuroglial cells that participate in maintaining the blood-brain barrier are the

Acetylcholine

Cholinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter

Depolarization

Opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes

Chemically-gated channels

______ open or close in response to binding specific molecules.

may either be a depolarization or hyperpolarization

Graded potenials

All of the answers are correct:
-through voltage-gated channels as in the action potential
-through passive or leak channels
-by ATP-dependent ion pumps like the sodium-potassium exchange pump
-through chemically-gated channels as in neuromuscular transmission

Ions can move across the plasma membrane in which of the following ways?

Chemically-regulated potassium channel

If ACh causes inhibition of a postsynaptic neuron, to what type of membrane channel did the ACh bind?

an inhibitory stimulus

A stimulus that changes a postsynaptic neuron's membrane from resting potential to -85 mV

Neurotransmitter; receptor

The same ___________ can have different effects depending on the properties of the ____________________.

all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.

The all-or-none principple states that

The rapid depolarization phase is caused by the entry of potassium ions

Which of the following statements about the action potential is false?

depolarization nevessary to cause an action potential

A threshold stimulus is the

The axon would be unable to generate action potentials.

Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork.. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons?

the postsynaptic neuron

A neuron that receives neurotransmitter from another neuron is called

spatial summation

Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is designated

central nervous system

The spinal cord is part of the

Axons of sensory neuron

The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains

Dura mater

The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the

All of the answers are correct;
-inflammation of the meninges occurs
-bacteria can be the cause
-viruses can be the cause

In meningitis

Subarachnoid space

Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the

Shingles

In the condition ________, a virus infects a spinal nerve, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes.

Would lose function of his lower and upper extremities

If a person has a crust injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he

Whether they are sensory or motor

Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following, except

Innate

Refleces based on synapses formed before birth are

Reciprocal inhibition

Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist motor neurons in a process called

Crossed extensor

The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles .

Moves a limb away from a painful stimulus

The flexor reflex

a polysynaptic reflex

In which of the following would the delay between stimulus and response be greater?

are arranged according to dermatomes

All of the following are true of polysynaptic reflexes, except that they

Tina suffered no damage to her spinal cord

Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her back. Her frightened parents take her to the emergency room, where she is examines. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinki reflex). These results suggest that

31

The spinal cord consists of five regions and _____________ segments.

diencephalon

Which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem?

Medulla oblongata

Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the

Hypothalamus

The ______________ provides the principal link between the nervous and the endocrine system.

All of the answers are correct;
-the capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions.
-It is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds.
-Astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries.
-It is absent in portions of the hypothalamus.

Which of the following is a property of the blood-brain barrier?

All of the answers are correct;
-the blood-brain barrier
-the bones of the skull
-the cranial meninges
-the CSF

Which of the following help to protect the brain?

Provides ATP for impulse transmission

Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?

The medulla oblongata

The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in

Cerebellum

Overseeing the postural muscle of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the

Ataxia

The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as

All of the answers are correct;
-produces ADH
-controls autonomic centers
-regulates body temperature
-secretes oxytocin

Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus?

the limbic system

The desire to perform a task (like study for your favorite class Human A&P!) is a component of this area of the brain. That is why it is also referred to as the motivational system.

Beta waves

This pattern of electrical activity is observed on an EEG when an individual is concentrating on a task or is under stress

hypothalamus

Joe begins to experience mood swings and disturbed thirst and hungar. Imaging studies indicate that a brain tumor is the likely cause of these disorders. In what part of the brain in the tumor most likely located?

Cortex

Regions in the cerebrum that interpret sensory information or coordinate motor responses are called _________ areas.

Allows us to interpret what is seen or heard

The general interpretive area

able to see letters but unable to associate them into words

A person with a damage visual association area may be

Integrative

________ centers receove information from many association areas and direct extremely complex motor activities such as speech.

Aphasia

______ is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read.

receptor specificity

Taste receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to light. This is due to

All of the answers are correct;
-touch
-warmth
-pain
-vibration

Examples of sensory stimuli include

Tactile receptor

A receptor that contains many mechanically-gated ion channels would function best as a

Proprioceptors

Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called

Barioreceptors; Chemoreceptors

Bladder fullness is to ____________ as blood pH is to _______________.

Referred pain

Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of

Spinocerebellar

The spinal tract that carries sensation from proprioceptors to the CNS is the

Number of motor units in that region

The area of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is proportional to the

Receptive field

The _______ is the area monitored by a single receptor cell.

Phasic

Sensory neurons that adapt quickly are called ____________ receptors

Somatic

The _________ nervous system carries impulses to skeletal muscles.

Sound

The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except

They are classified as phasic receptors

All of the following statements about nociceptors are true, except

Anencephaly

In ____________________, the brain fails to develop about the mesencephalon or lower diencephalon.

Spinothalamic

Phantom limb pain and reffered pain are associated with which sensory pathway?

Chemoreceptors

Which of the following is not a class of mechanoreceptors?

Sympathetic

The ____________ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "fight or flight".

Digestion

The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state(s)?

Dilation of the airways

Parasympathetic functions include all of the following, except

Both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation

The regulation of blood pressure depends upon

Decreased blood pressure

Drugs that have effects similar to those of sympathetic activation are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following would you not expect to observe in a person who has taken a sympathomimetic drug

Blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue

Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). Which of the following might help him deal with his problem? A drug that

Digestion

The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state(s)?

Both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation.

Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving

Allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options.

Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because it

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