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Final

1. An assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to specific behavior(s) that is/are listed on the assessment is called a ____________.

a. frequency count
b. projective test
c. rating scale
d. interview

1. c. rating scale

2. Which of the following is NOT an Axis I disorder of the DSM-IV-TR?

a. sexual and gender identity disorders
b. substance-related disorders
c. personality disorders
d. factitious disorders

2. c. personality disorders

3. Which theory of personality was a direct reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives?

a. trait perspective
b. humanistic perspective
c. projective perspective
d. inventory perspective

3. b. humanistic perspective

4. Which one of the goals of psychology would be most relevant in the trait perspective?

a. control
b. explanation
c. maintenance
d. description

4. d. description

5. Which cognitive event, often attributed to the work of Martin Seligman, is hypothesized as contributing to the development and maintenance of major depression?

a. self-efficacy
b. reciprocal determinism
c. learned helplessness
d. all-or-none thinking

5. c. learned helplessness

6. People who have a(n) ______ are afraid of being evaluated in some negative way by others, so they tend to avoid situations that can be embarrassing.

a. social phobia
b. interactive phobia
c. specific phobia
d. agoraphobia

6. a. social phobia

7. What is the primary difficulty with applying the criterion of "social norm deviance" to define abnormal behavior?

a. Norms are difficult to enumerate.
b. Behavior that is considered disordered in one culture may be acceptable in another.
c. Cultures accept and view all behaviors as normal.
d. Norms do not guide behavior except in rare instances.

7. b. Behavior that is considered disordered in one culture may be acceptable in another.

8. Linda is afraid of cats because when she was a little girl a cat scared her by jumping out of her closet and onto her face. As a result of this experience, Linda learned to be afraid of cats. Which model of abnormality offers the best explanation of Linda's fear?

a. behavioral
b. cognitive
c. psychoanalytic
d. sociocultural

8. a. behavioral

9. As part of an application for a job, Dan is asked to complete some psychological tests including one in which he responds true or false to items such as "I feel sad most of the time," or "I had a good childhood." What type of psychological test is Dan taking?

a. an inventory
b. a behavioral log
c. the TAT
d. a projective test

9. a. an inventory

*10. When a psychologist or psychiatrist is using the DSM-IV-TR as a guide to evaluating a client, he or she would assess the client on each of five __________.

a. axes
b. phases
c. steps
d. stages

10. a. axes

11. An advantage to group therapy is that groups ______.

a. allow countertransference to occur
b. bestow unconditional approval on group members
c. are a source of social support
d. allow an extremely shy person to feel more comfortable speaking up

11. c. are a source of social support

12. According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of _______.

a. our irrational beliefs
b. other people's irrational beliefs
c. the events that happen to us
d. our behaviors

12. a. our irrational beliefs

*13. Your friend has applied to several medical schools. After receiving one rejection letter, she concludes that she will not be admitted to any school and feels depressed. Your friend is engaging in___________.

a. overgeneralization
b. selective thinking
c. minimization
d. arbitrary inference

13. a. overgeneralization

*14. The psychoanalytic model holds that abnormal behavior is the result of ______.

a. learning
b. biochemical imbalances
c. repressed thoughts, memories, and concerns
d. biology

14. c. repressed thoughts, memories, and concerns

*15. _______is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders.

a. The Textbook of Psychological Disorders
b. The Textbook of Physiological Disorders
c. The Physician's Desk Reference
d. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

15. d. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

*16. The primary feature of ______ schizophrenia is severe disturbance of motor behavior.

a. paranoid
b. residual
c. catatonic
d. disorganized

16. c. catatonic

17. Most family therapists who work with couples concentrate on ______.

a. improving the couple's patterns of communication so they can find better ways of solving their problems
b. exploring the marital partners' childhoods to understand the source of the current conflicts
c. desensitization techniques to help the marital partners become more tolerant of each other
d. changing the behavior of the person in the marriage who is the source of the couple's problems

17. a. improving the couple's patterns of communication so they can find better ways of solving their problems

18. The term affect is used by psychologists to refer to ______.

a. intuition
b. behavior
c. emotion
d. thought

18. c. emotion

*19. According to the cognitive perspective, disordered behavior is the result of _____________.

a. repressed thoughts and memories that try to resurface
b. a set of learned responses
c. illogical thinking patterns
d. chemical imbalances and brain damage

19. c. illogical thinking patterns

20. Which criterion would designate a person who never talks to anyone as abnormal?

a. statistical definition
b. subjective discomfort
c. malnutritious
d. dysfunctional

20. a. statistical definition

21. Which term refers to a way to define abnormality by comparing an individual's behavior to the norms or standards of the society in which an individual lives?

a. social context
b. social norm deviance
c. social mores
d. social discomfort

21. b. social norm deviance

22. What is Freud's term for the executive of the personality that has a realistic plan for obtaining gratification of an individual's desires?

a. id
b. superego
c. preconscious
d. ego

22. d. ego

23. What do Abraham Maslow's and Carl Rogers's theories have in common?

a. They are both stage theories.
b. They believe that each human being is free to choose his or her own destiny.
c. They both fit in the learning/cognitive perspective.
d. They focus on unconscious motivation.

23. b. They believe that each human being is free to choose his or her own destiny.

24. What is Albert Bandura's term for the relationship among the three factors that influence personality?

a. learned responses
b. reciprocal determinism
c. feedback loops
d. external expectancies

24. b. reciprocal determinism

25. A famous psychologist argues that there are three factors that influence personality: environment, person, and behavior. This psychologist is most likely a ______ psychologist.

a. trait
b. psychodynamic
c. social cognitive
d. psychoanalytic

25. c. social cognitive

*26. Craig is currently in therapy to help him stop smoking. His therapist is using learning techniques to help him modify his smoking habit and develop more desirable behaviors. Craig's therapist is using________.

a. behavior modification
b. empty chair technique
c. selective thinking
d. reflection

26. a. behavior modification

*27. In Carl Rogers's theory, our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics is known as ________.

a. self-esteem
b. self-concept
c. personality
d. self-regard

27. b. self-concept

*28. Which of the following is a key component of Rogers's person-centered therapy?

a. unconditional positive regard
b. cognition
c. dream interpretation
d. resistance

28. a. unconditional positive regard

29. Cattell and Allport are both prominent ______ theorists.

a. humanistic
b. trait
c. psychodynamic
d. behavioral

29. b. trait

*30. Which assessment technique requires people to respond to unstructured or ambiguous stimuli?

a. predictive
b. projective
c. objective
d. dynamic

30. b. projective

*31. A person who suffers from bipolar disorder alternates between ________.

a. depression and schizophrenia
b. anxiety and mania
c. depression and manic episodes
d. mania and schizophrenia

31. c. depression and manic episodes

*32. Axis IV of the DSM-IV-TR includes_____________.

a. information about problems in the person's life that might affect adjustment, such as death of a loved one
b. all psychological disorders except personality disorders
c. all physical disorders that affect a person's psychological adjustment
d. an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person's mental health and adjustment based on a scale from 0 to 100

32. a. information about problems in the person's life that might affect adjustment, such as death of a loved one

33. In which form of therapy does the therapist take a directive role, challenging clients when they make "my way or nothing" statements?

a. behavior therapy
b. psychoanalysis
c. rational-emotive behavioral therapy
d. person-centered therapy

33. c. rational-emotive behavioral therapy

34. Which element in Freud's personality theory is composed of the conscience and the ego ideal?

a. id
b. superego
c. ego
d. preconscious

34. b. superego

35. One sign of abnormality is when a person engages in behavior that creates a great deal of emotional distress or __________.

a. statistical rarity
b. social deviance
c. situational context
d. subjective discomfort

35. d. subjective discomfort

36. Gestalt therapy emphasizes ______.

a. the here-and-now
b. finding the initial causes of current problems
c. the role of unsatisfactory relationships in the development of maladaptive behaviors
d. early childhood influences on adult behavior

36. a. the here-and-now

*7. A baseball player's son is quite talented; he has received lots of awards over the years. When he gets up to bat he expects to get a hit, and when he is in the field he expects to make every catch. According to Bandura, what characteristic does this young man seem to have?

a. self-efficacy
b. self-regard
c. self-actualization
d. self-centeredness

37. a. self-efficacy

*38. Laurie, a 30-year-old homemaker, has delusions and hallucinations, often acts silly, giggles loudly and inappropriately, makes odd gestures, and does not bathe or change her clothes regularly. Her symptoms indicate she is suffering from ______ schizophrenia.

a. catatonic
b. undifferentiated
c. paranoid
d. disorganized

38. d. disorganized

*39. Axis III of the DSM-IV-TR includes_____________.

a. physical disorders that affect a person's psychological adjustment
b. all psychological disorders except personality disorders
c. information about problems in the person's life that might affect adjustment, such as death of a loved one
d. an overall judgment made by the psychological professional of the person's mental health and adjustment based on a scale from 0 to 100

39. a. physical disorders that affect a person's psychological adjustment

40. The form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an unpleasant stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior is called_______.

a. token economy
b. participant modeling
c. operant conditioning
d. aversion therapy

40. d. aversion therapy

41. False beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness are known as ______.

a. hallucinations
b. obsessions
c. compulsions
d. delusions

41. d. delusions

*42. Excessive or unrealistic fearfulness and worry are characteristic of ______.

a. dissociative neurosis
b. mood disorders
c. amnesia
d. anxiety disorders

42. d. anxiety disorders

43. Which of the following best describes dysthymia?

a. a form of depression that is very responsive to electroconvulsive therapy
b. a mild, chronic form of depression
c. a severe, intermittent form of depression
d. a form of depression that affects biological functions such as appetite

43. b. a mild, chronic form of depression

44. Which of the following statements describes the relationship between temperament and personality?

a. Temperament and personality are the exact same thing.
b. Personality, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one's temperament is built.
c. Temperament refers to negative personal characteristics, while personality refers to positive personal characteristics.
d. Temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one's personality is built.

44. d. Temperament, which we are born with, is the basis upon which one's personality is built.

45. Maria is a retired factory worker who lives with anxiety. Due to the fear of having anxiety attacks, she does not leave her house. This makes her feel trapped in her home, which creates distress. Which criterion would be most appropriate in deciding whether Maria's case represents an example of abnormality?

a. subjective discomfort
b. social norm deviance
c. statistical rarity
d. situational context

45. a. subjective discomfort

46. Sandy has the tendency to make everything seem so much worse than it actually is. Beck would say that Sandy has a tendency to engage in ______.

a. overgeneralization
b. all-or-nothing-thinking
c. minimization
d. magnification

46. d. magnification

47. The psychoanalytic model of abnormal behavior is based on the work of ______.

a. Skinner
b. Freud
c. Rogers
d. Perls

47. b. Freud

48. A therapist is interested in helping his client change his disordered behavior. This therapist is most likely to be a/an _______.

a. insight therapist
b. biomedical therapist
c. relationship therapist
d. action therapist

48. d. action therapist

49. Dr. Shedrika uses a form of therapy that emphasizes revealing his clients' unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires, which he believes are the cause of his clients' disordered emotions and behavior. This therapist is most likely using ______.

a. Gestalt therapy
b. systematic desensitization
c. psychoanalysis
d. behavior therapy

49. c. psychoanalysis

50. "If it feels good do it" best describes the ______.

a. ego
b. id
c. preconscious
d. superego

50. b. id

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