Psychology Final

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Which following word BEST describes the focus of the study of Human Development?
A. Change
B. Childhood
C. Infancy
D. Relationships

Change

Developmental Psychology studies?
A. Cognitive development
B. Psychosocial development
C. Physical development
D. all of the above

All of the above

The age range of approximately 6-11 years refers to which of the following periods of development?
A. Early childhood
B. Middle childhood
C. Adolescence
D. Young adulthood

Middle childhood

According the the text, which of the following is NOT one of the major divisions of the life span?
A.Prenatal
B. Infancy and toddlerhood
C. late adulthood
D. Senescence

Senescence

Shayla is dependent on adults to meet her basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter, and to provide attachment bonding. She is experiencing what type of developmental period?
A. Infancy
B. Toddlerhood
C. Early childhood
D Middle childhood

Infancy

Socioeconomic status is determined by all of the following except?
A. Ethnicity
B. Income
C. Education
D. Occupation

Ethnicity

Tentative explanations or predictions that can be scientifically tested are called?
A. Theories
B. Hypotheses
C. Research findings
D. Conclusions

hypotheses

"If children learn aggression from models, then children who watch violent television shows should be more aggressive than children who watch nonviolent shows." This is an example of....
A. Theory
B. Finding
C. Hypotheses
D. Conclusion

hypotheses

Psychoanalytic theory was developed by
A. Sigmund Freud
B. Ivan Pavlov
C. Albert Bandura
D. Erik Erikson

Sigmund Freud

As an adult, Mary spends considerable time each day cleaning her apartment, arranging her socks in a drawer until they are just so, and making schedules on a calendar. According to Freud, Mary is probably fixated in the ______ stage.
A. Oral
B. Anal
C. Genital
D. Phallic

Anal

According to Freud, during early childhood boys develop sexual attachment to their mothers. Freud called this development?
A. The Electra complex
B. the unconscious complex
C. The Oedipus complex
D. regressing

the Oedipus complex

According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, a teenage girl would be facing the crisis of?
A. intimacy vs. isolation
B. integrity vs. despair
C. industry vs. inferiority
D. identity vs. identity confusion

identity vs. identity confusion

An example of Erikson's stage of initiative versus guilt would be
A. an infant learning that she can depend on being fed
B. a 3 year old trying to fill a cup with water and cheerfully wiping up the water when it spills
C.a 10 year old learning to read fluently
D. a teenager conforming to peer pressure

A 3 year old trying to fill a cup with water and cheerfully wiping it up when it spills

Which of the follwoing researchers worked with "Little Albert" in one of the earliest and most famous examples of classical conditioning in human development?
A. John B. Watson
B. Ivan Pavlov
C. B.F. Skinner
D. Edward Thorndike

John B. Watson

The principles of classical conditioning were developed by
A. John B. Watson
B. Ivan Pavlov
C. B.F. Skinner
D. Edward Thorndike

Ivan Pavlov

The psychologist who formulated the principles of operant conditioning was
A John B. Watson
B. Ivan Pavlov
C. B. F. Skinner
D. Sidney Pressey

B. F. Skinner

Any consequence of a behavior that increases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated is called
A. punishment
B. reinforcement
C. an averse event
D. classical conditioning

reinforcement

The principles of social learning theory were developed by
A. B.F. Skinner
B. Carl Rogers
C. John B. Watson
D. Albert Bandura

Albert Bandura

According to social learning theory, the most important element in how children learn a language, deal with aggresion, develop a sense of morality, and learn gender-appropriate behavior is
A. Classical conditioning
B. observation and imitation
C. Punishment of inappropriate behavior
D. Shaping of appropriate behavior

observation and imitation

Which of the following is NOT one of the cognitive stages through which a child progresses, as theorized by Jean Piaget?
A. post-conceptual
B. sensorimotor
C. preoperational
D. concrete operations

post-conceptual

A structure of organized patters of behavior that a person uses to think about and act in a situation is that person's
A. scheme
B. situation
C. adaptation
D. assimilation

Scheme

when research deals with objectively measurable data, this is a description of
A. Qualitative research
B. quantitive research
C. theories
D. hypotheses

quantitive research

Professor Bailey watches Tehra closely through a one-way mirror as she participates in her social studies class. This is an example of what research method?
A. Clinical Study
B. Case Study
C. Naturalistic observation
D. laboratory observation

naturalistic observation

A strong correlation between variables does not necessarily mean that one variable_______ the other.

Causes

In an experiment, Professor Daley manipulates the ______ variable and then looks for an effect of that manipulation by measuring the _______ variable.

Independent; dependent

In an experiment, one group of children is given a drink each day with a special vitamin supplement. A second group of children is given the same drink but without the vitamin. Later, all children are given the same IQ test to see if the vitamin had an effect on intellegence. In this experiment, the child's scores on the IQ test would be the..

dependent variable

Dr. Ellie Cheetham follows the same group of children over a 10-year period, measuring their performance twice a year. This is which method of data collection?

Longitudinal

Objections to Watson and Rayner's study of ______ stimulated the American Psychological Association to establish more stringent ethical guidlines for research studies that involved human subjects.

Little Albert

The right hemisphere of the brain is primarily responsible for _______ while the left hemisphere is primarily responsible for______?

Creativity, Logic

Patient H.M. suffered from a on-going anterograde amnesia causing him to not...

transfer information to long term memory

When Jessie was asked to draw a picture of a flower, he only drew the left side. The right side of the paper was totally blank. This indicates that Jessie suffers from:

Damage to the left-side parietal lobe

The three main parts of the brain are the:

Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain

The limbic system is referred to as the______ and includes the _____ and _______.

Emotional brain, thalamus, hypothalamus

The Milgram experiment is an extreme example of:

Social obedience in response to authority prods

Methamphetamines can cause:

an increase in energy, concentration, and psychosis

Ovulation refers to:

the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary

Which of the following describes the path sperm travel after they enter the woman's body through the Vagina?

Cervix, Uterus, Fallopian tube

Tasha has just given birth to healthy twins. One of the twins has an X and Y chromosome, while the other has two X chromosomes. These Twins are:

Dizygotic

The increased use of fertility drugs, along with delayed childbearing, has resulted in:

an increase in multiple births

In Human development class, Tasha and Vladimir learned that it is the chromosome of ______ that will determine the sex of the child they hope to have together.

Father

Recessive inheritance occurs only when a person receives two_____ alleles; one from each parent.

recessive

Marlin has been asked to go on a blind date with his friend Roger's sister. If Marlin wants to know facts like hair color, body type, etc., Roger will need to describe his sister's....

Phenotype

A factor that increases the probability of having a baby with Down syndrome is

Increased age of mother or father

The most common chromosomal abnormality that takes place in the autosomes is

down syndrome

The zygote divides and implants into the wall of the uterus during which stage of gestation?

Embryonic

Miscarriages are most commonly caused by

chromosomal abnormalities

What prenatal test can be conducted the earliest?

Integrated Screening

What do doctors recommend about the use of alcohol during pregnancy?

Should be avoided

The dramatic reduction in risks surrounding pregnancy and childbirth has resulted from...

antibiotics, anesthesia, and prenatal care

Approximately two weeks before Elizabeth's due date, her obstetrician told her that the uterine and cervical changes that bring on labor had begun. This process is called?

Parturition

The first stage of childbirth...

consists of dilation or widening of the cervix

The end of the second stage of childbirth is indicated by

The emergence of the baby from the mother's body

The average newborn weighs _____ pounds.

7.5

Cesarean birth rates in the U.S. are among the _____ in the world

Highest

Frequent visits to the hospital nursery by parents of a low-birth weight baby

may speed the baby's discharge

Dr. Lakiavani is advising young parents on the things they can do to reduce the likelihood of SIDS in their babies. What is one?

Babies should be put to sleep on their backs

What physical description would most likely describe a child of what age: chubby, Potbellied, and a large head relative to body size?

1 year old

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants should be given what to eat?

Breast milk or iron-fortified formula for 12 months or longer

Depressed brain activity has been found in children who have....

grown up in a deprived enviroment

The first stage of Piaget's cognitive theory is

Sensorimotor

The realization that a person or object continues to exist even when out of sight is called?

Object permanence

A childs first words appears at about what age?

10-14 months

An example of telegraphic speech is

"Want Cookie"

The best way for babies to learn speech is from

communication with someone

Little mark plays with a balloon that pops in his face and frightens him. The next time he sees a balloon, he starts to cry. This type of learning is an example of?

Classical conditioning

Susie learned to sit on the floor and cry until she is given a piece of candy. This is an example of:

Operant conditioning

Lucy has no memories about her early life. Her first memories are of preschool when she was 3 years old. This inability to recall early events is called?

Infantile amnesia

Teresa is beginning to show signs that she is cognitively aware that she is a functioning human being, seperate from the rest of the world. This is referred to as?

Self-awareness

A person's characteristic way of approaching and reacting to people and situations defines that person's?

Temperment

The ability of a child to feel what another feels, or would be expected to feel, in a particular situation is called:

empathy

What is evidence that a child is successfully socialized?

A child internalizes social standards

What is the foundation of socialization?

Self regulation

The most important element in the assessment of the quality of a daycare is the?

the caregiver itself

Abuse usually happens...

at the hand of a parent

Failure to meet a child's basic needs is

Neglect

A key to preventing obesity in children is:

individual servings of appropriate portions

Currently, which of the following causes the most deaths in childhood in the US?

Accidents

Many poor children do not get adequate medical care because

their families dont have medical insurance

Recognition memory is what to recall memory in early childhood

better developed that recall memory in early childhood

According to the text, children are usually not physically ready to participate in organized sports until they are

about 6 years old

Handedness, the preference for using one hand over the other, usually becomes evident in children when they are about ____ of age

3 years

A child who can think logically about the "here and now" but not abstractly is in which of Piaget's stages?

Concrete Operational

The major contributor to self-esteem is

Social support from parents, peers, and teachers

Children have typically internalized the emotions of pride and shame by age

7 or 8

What is not a common reaction of children of divorce

happiness that the parents' fighting is over

Children choose peers that are closest to them in

age, ethnicity, and demographics

What pair of siblings are most likeley to quarrel?

two boys

Colton wanted another child's toy at school and behaved aggressively to get it. Once Colton got the toy he walked away. This is an example of?

Instrumental aggression

The long-term influence of televised violence is greatest in

middle childhood

The initial origin of the hormonal changes that cause puberty is from the _____gland.

adrenal

Most teenagers are more concerned about their _______than any other aspect of their development

appearance

To be in sync with their brain's natural clock, or circadian rhythms, most adolescents need to...

go to bed late and get up late

The unhealthy diets of many adolescents place them at risk for all of the following except...

increased heart attacks

The typical anorexic is

depressed

secret gorging on food followed by vomiting, fasting, or purging with use of laxatives is characteristic of

bulimics

After completion of treatment,_____ of anorexics make a full recovery

50%

When adolescents die, it is usually from?

Accidents

Lucy solves a chemistry problem by systematically testing several hypotheses. She is at what stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget?

Formal Operations

The desirable outcome of the crisis of adolescence, according to Erikson, is being able to

see oneself as a unique person with a meaningful role in life

Sexual orientation generally becomes a pressing issue during

adolescence

Adolescents begin to rely on friends more than parents for their

intimacy and support

The intensity and importance of friendships, as well as time spent with friends, are probably greater in _______ than at any other time in the life span

Adolescence

The Textbook states most juvenile offenders will

outgrow their tendencies

The peak of Muscular strength occurs during the middle

twenties

Compared to other age groups, emerging and young adults have the highest rates of

poverty

What is the leading preventable cause of death in the US?

smoking

The most popular illicit drug used among young adults is

marijuana

According to Kohlberg, what is the stage of moral reasoning that cannot be reached until young adulthood?

Post conventional

A cluster of the traits of anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and vulnerability is called

neuroticism

In comparison with the previous generation, women today tend to

have children later in life

The most common symptom of menopause is

Hot flashes

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