Chapter 7 Test

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What type of organisms produce the biosphere's food supply?

producers

In a rosebush, chlorophyll is located in...

thylakoids, which are in chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of a leaf

How does carbon dioxide enter the leaf?

through the stomata

Chlorophyll molecules are in which part of the chloroplast?

grana

You could distinguish a granum from an inner mitochondrial membrane because the granum, but not the inner mitochondrial membrane, would...

have photosynthetic pigments

The source of oxygen produced by photosynthesis has been identified through experiments using radioactive tracers. The oxygen comes from...

water

In photosynthesis, what is the fate of the oxygen atoms present in carbon dioxide? They end up...

in sugar molecules and in water

In an experiment, a plant was given ___ containing radioactive 18O, and the radioactive oxygen atoms were used to make sugar

carbon dioxide

In photosynthesis, plants use carbon from ____ to make sugar and other organic molecules.

carbon dioxide

Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are similar in that they both involve ____.

redox reactions

The photosynthetic event known as the Calvin Cycle occurs in the ____.

stroma

The photo- part of the word photosynthesis refers to ____, whereas -synthesis refers to ____.

the light reactions that occur in the thylakoids ... carbon fixation

the wavelengths of light absorbed by pigment sin the granum are mainly in wich range?

blue-violet and red-orange

The most important role of pigments in photosynthesis is to ____.

capture light energy

What color is most strongly transmitted by chlorophyll?

green

When chloroplast pigments absorb light, ____.

their electrons become excited

the reaction center, antenna molecules, and primary electron acceptors that cluster in the thylakoid membrane form which structure?

photosystem

The synthesis of glucose by photosynthesis is an endergonic process. The source of the energy for the excited electrons is ____.

light

The light reactions of photosynthesis generate high-energy electrons, which end up in ____. The light reaction also produce ____ and ____.

NADPH ... ATP ... oxygen

Where do the electrons needed by photosystem II originate?

water

During photosynthesis in chloroplasts, oxygen is produced from _____ via a series of reactions associated with ____.

water ... photosystem II

What do light reactions not do?

reduce carbon dioxide

During photosynthesis, an electron transport chain is used to ____.

transport electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I

Molecular oxygen is produced during ____.

light reactions of photosynthesis

Light reactions are well located in the thylakoid membrane because ____.

chemiosmosis can be set up across the thylakoid membrane

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts _____.

use a H+ gradient to produce ATP

In addition to its function during electron transport in mitochondria, the chemiosmotic mechanism is important for generating ATP during the _____

light reactions of photosynthesis

During photosynthesis in a eukaryotic cell, a high H+ concentration accumulates or is formed in the ____.

thylokoid compartment

The energy used to produce ATP in the light reactions of photosynthesis comes from ____.

the burning of sugar molecules

The reactions of the Calvin cycle are not directly dependent on light, but they usually do not occur at night. Why?

The Calvin cycle depends on products of the light reactions

The Calvin cycle is a series of reactions that ____.

assemble sugar molecules by fixing carbon

Why is NADP+ needed in photosynthesis?

It forms NADPH to be used in the Calvin cycle

Rubisco is ____.

the enzyme in c3 plants that first captures carbon dioxide to begin the Calvin cycle

What is the role of NADP+ in photosynthesis?

It is reduced and then carries electrons to the Calvin cycle

You have a large, healthy philodendron that you carelessly leave in total darkness while you are on vacay. You are surprised to find that it is still alive when you return. What has the plant been using as a source of energy while in the dark?

Even though the plant received no visible light, it was able to use the short-wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum (gamma rays and X-rays) to carry out photosynthesis

What equation best summarizes photosynthesis?

6 CO2 + 6 H2O —> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

The light reactants of photosynthesis use ____ and produce _____.

water ... NADPH

____ has a longer wavelength than ____.

red ... green

What phosphorylates ADP to make ATP?

Photosystem II

What releases energy that is used to pump hydrogen ions from the stroma into the thylakoid compartment?

ATP synthase

What splits water into 1/2 O2, H+, and e-?

Photosystem I

Energized electrons from ____ enter an electron transport chain are then used to reduce NADP+.

electron transport chain

Carbon fixation involves the addition of carbon dioxide to ___.

RuBP

After 3-PGA is phosphorylated, it is reduces by...

NADPH

How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP to make a single molecule of glucose?

6

In the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?

3

In C3 plants the conservation of water promotes...

photorespiration

In C4 and CAM plants carbon dioxide in fixed in the ____ of mesophyll cells.

cytoplasm

C4 plants differ from C3 and CAM plants in that C4 plants ____.

transfer fixed carbon dioxide cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs

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