MAN 4240 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE part 1 T/F

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True/False on worksheets 1-15 and exams 1-4

Workforce diversity potentially improves decision making and team performance on complex tasks

T

According to the systems perspective, most organizations have one working part rather than many sub-components

F

Social entities are called organizations only when their members have complete agreement on the goals they want to achieve

F

Values represent an individual's short-term beliefs about what will happen in the future

F

Work/life balance refers to minimizing conflict between work and non-work demands

T

One way organizations can retain intellectual capital is to have high employee turn around

F

The field of organizational behavior relies on qualitative rather than quantitative research to understand organizational phenomena

F

All organizations have a collective sense of purpose, whether it's producing oil or creating the fastest Internet search engine

T

Counterproductive work behaviors include threats and work avoidance

T

People born between 1946 and 1964 are referred to as Generation X Employees

F

Situational factors are working conditions within the employee's control

F

Agreeableness, extroversion, and conscientiousness are three of the 'Big Five' personality dimensions

T

Mature adults tend to have a single unitary self-concept that remains relatively stable

F

Self-enhancement can result in bad decisions

T

Ethically sensitive people recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue

T

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator measures the personality traits described by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung

T

Ethics experts say that the most effective way to ensure that employees engage in ethical behavior is to introduce ethical codes of conduct

F

Evidence regarding the effectiveness of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Jung's psychological types is inconclusive

T

According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, some people are 'sensing-thinking' types whereas others may be 'intuitive-feeling' types

T

Personality is a relatively stable pattern of behaviors and internal states that explains a person's behavioral tendencies

T

Categorical thinking is mostly a conscious process of deciding what information in the environment to notice

F

According to social learning theory, people can reinforce their own behavior

T

Self-fulfilling prophecy tends to have a stronger effect on employees who are new to the job than on employees who have worked in that job for a few years

T

The primacy effect causes interviewers to ignore information presented at the beginning of the interview and to pay more attention to information presented later in the interview

F

A person's social identity is a complex combination of his or her memberships in many groups

F

Diversity awareness programs mainly educate employees about the value of diversity and the problems with stereotyping

T

One problem with stereotyping is that few traits assigned to a particular social category accurately describe every person identified with that group

T

The first step in a self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when the observer acts differently towards people with whom he or she has high expectations than towards those with whom he or she has low expectations than towards those with whom he or she has low expectations

F

Continuous reinforcement provides the most rapid learning of the targeted behavior

T

Organizational learning is not dependent on individual learning since it mostly involves the organization managing its own knowledge- based assets

F

Job sharing and telework are usually considered ways to reduce stress through work/life balance

T

Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's wellbeing

T

the four dimensions of emotional intelligence form a hierarchy

T

Research concludes that when our emotions and logical analysis of a situation conflict with each other, we should follow our emotions

F

The latest organizational behavior evidence concludes that happy workers are more productive workers to some extent

T

Display rules are norms that require employees to show certain emotions and to withhold others

T

Compared with other countries, Hungarian employees have above average levels of job satisfaction

F

Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities

T

Attitudes develop from our emotional experiences as wells as from the perceptual process

T

Job satisfaction is an ethical issue that influences the organization's reputation in the community

T

In order for something to be called an organization it must have buildings and equipment

F

An important principle in organizational behavior is that OB theories should never be used to predict or influence organizational events

F

Everyone is a manager

T

Organizational effectiveness depends on the organization's capacity to acquire, share, use and store valuable knowledge

T

Values guide an individual but are not an important subject within an organization

F

Counterproductive work behaviors are voluntary

T

Research has found that absenteeism is rarely, if ever, caused by situational factors

F

Sensing, feeling, and judging are three of the 'Big Five' personality traits

F

Personality is completely determined by heredity

F

The perceptual process begins by attributing behavior to internal or external causes

F

Homogenization and differentiation are two activities in the process of forming and maintaining our social identity

T

Stereotyping is an extension of the social identity process

T

Self-fulfilling prophecy occurs whenever supervisors accurately predict the future of performance of recently hired employees

F

Tacit knowledge is mainly learned through observation and experience

T

People are consciously aware of most emotions they experience

F

Emotions are communications to ourselves, which serve to put us in a state of readiness

T

Emotional intelligence tends to increase with age

T

It is reasonable to conclude from recent surveys that nearly all employees in the United States are truly very satisfied with their jobs

F

The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance would likely be stronger if more organizations provided valued rewards for good performance

T

Organizational commitment refers to an employee's contractual obligation to provide a minimum amount of time and effort to the organization in return for a fair day's pay from the organization

F

Eustress refers to the short-term causes of stress, whereas distress refers to long-term causes

F

One of the most common consequences of over reward inequity is that overpaid employees try to increase their inputs by working harder

F

To determine the fairness of pay or other outcomes, people almost always rely on the equity principle

T

Needs Hierarchy Theory explains how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources

F

Maslow is credited for bringing a mechanistic perspective to the study of motivation

F

People with a high need for affiliation tend to be more effective in jobs that require them to mediate conflicts

T

Over reward inequity occurs whenever other people receive less money than you do

F

Most employers say that nowadays motivating employees is more challenging that it used ot be

T

One of the most significant discoveries in Equity Theory research is that people tend to keep the same comparison throughout their working lives

F

Distributive justice increases directly with the extent that the decision allows voice, can be appealed, and has an unbiased decision maker

F

According to equity theory, employees feel inequity only when other people receive higher salaries than they do

F

Motivator-Hygiene Theory highlights the idea that job content is an important source of employee motivation

T

Adam Smith introduced the principles of Scientific Management

F

Forming natural work units tends to increase task identity and task significance

T

People with a high power distance give money a low priority in their lives

F

Some critics argue that financial rewards discourage creativity and distract employees from the meaningfulness of the work itself.

T

Mental imagery helps us to anticipate and work out solutions to potential obstacles in our work

T

Job specialization usually reduces the employee's work efficiency

F

Self-leadership borrows ideas from social learning theory and research in sports psychology on constructive thought processes

T

Job enlargement increases skill variety

T

Scientific Management is the process of systematically dividing work into its smallest possible elements and standardizing work activities to achieve maximum efficiency

T

When in a positive mood, people pay more attention to details and follow a non programmed decision routine

F

Creativity tends to suffer during times of downsizing and corporate restructuring

T

The decision maker's emotions play an important role in his or her identification of a problem or opportunity

T

ill-defined problems require a non-programed decision process

T

Employees are more likely to be committed to implementing a solution when they are involved in making the decision

T

Creative people value self- direction, but also have a strong need to follow rules

F

Employee involvement potentially improves decision making quality and commitment

T

The ideas that form during the insight stage of creativity need to be verified through conscious evaluation and experimentation

T

Scenario planning is a structured process that helps decision makers explore potential problems and choose the best solutions under different future conditions

T

Escalation of commitment occurs when employees increase their support for a decision because most of their colleagues also support that decision

F

Employees are more motivated in teams because they are accountable to fellow team members who also monitor their performance

T

Our desire for informal groups is mostly influenced by our drive to defend

F

Task forces are temporary groups that typically investigate a particular problem and disband when the decision is made

T

Social loafing is more common among people with collectivist values

F

Team roles are typically negotiated among team members

F

Teams are groups with some degree of task interdependence and a common objective

T

The longer team members work together, the better they develop common mental models to help them complete the work together

T

Team cohesiveness decreases with increased interaction because there are more chances for conflicts to emerge

F

Teams are groups of two or more people who have equal influence over each other regarding the team's goals and means of achieving those goals

F

Team members are held together by their interdependence and need for collaboration to achieve common goals

T

In the context of motivation, drives are also called primary needs, fundamental needs, or innate needs

T

ERG theory recognizes three learned needs: achievement, affiliation, and power

F

The stronger your needs, the less motivated you are to fulfill them

F

According to Learned Needs Theory, companies should hire leaders with a strong need for personalized power

F

People with a high need for affiliation tend to be more effective in jobs that allocate scarce resources among employees

F

Equity Theory research has found that employees who feel over rewarded tend to alter their perceptions of inputs and outcomes rather than attempt to actually change them

T

The idea behind 360- degree feedback is that employees should receive feedback for 360 continuous days

F

According to Four-drive Theory, three drives are proactive (i.e. we actively seek to fulfill them) whereas the drive to defend is reactive (i.e. activated only in reaction to threat).

T

Feelings of procedural injustice produce anger, which, in turn, generates either withdrawal or aggression

T

Job evaluation mainly supports the competency approach to rewards

F

Job specialization increases work efficiency, but it tends to reduce employee motivation

T

Compared with women, men give money a lower priority in their lives

F

Self-leadership involves finding ways to increase job specialization

F

The philosophy behind Scientific Management is to increase job enrichment and decrease job specialization

F

Employees assembling complete computer modems would have higher task identity than those assembling only one component and passing it along to others for further assembly

T

Gainsharing and share-ownership reward plans create an "ownership culture" that is good for owners, but bad for employees

F

Satisficing occurs when people continue on a failing course of action

F

Intuition is the main strategy to minimize escalation of commitment

F

Employee involvement potentially improves decision-making quality and commitment

T

Creative people tend to have a high need for social approval

F

The rational choice paradigm assumes that decision makers have limited information- processing capabilities and engage in a limited search for alternatives

F

Bounded rationality adopts the main assumptions of the rational choice paradigm of decision making

F

All groups are teams, but some types of teams are not groups

F

Self-directed work teams plan, organize, and control activities with little or no direct involvement of supervisors

t

Virtual teams are usually permanent functional groups that communicate mainly through weekly face-to face meetings

F

Students experience pooled interdependence when they are lined up at the laser printers trying to get their assignments done just before a class deadline

T

Flaming refers to the capacity of an organization to transmit information more quickly through computer networks than through traditional paper media

F

The encoding and decoding process is enhanced when both parties have similar "passbooks."

F

Multi-communicating is possible because of the reduced sensory demand for most forms of computer-mediated communication

T

Management by walking around occurs whenever senior executives get out of their offices and communicate face- face with employees

T

Empathy, emotional contagion, and anger are three types of noise in the communication process

F

In the communication process model, encoding the message refers to selecting the appropriate medium and sending your ideas through that medium.

F

According to the communication process model, communication begins with forming the message, then encoding it.

T

The image used in the communication process model is that information is like fruit on a tree that needs to be picked

F

Omitting and buffering strategies help employees to reduce the amount of information they must process (i.e. information load)

T

The three components of listening are encoding, decoding and interpreting

F

Upward appeal is not considered a type of influence tactic

F

Soft influence tactics such as persuasion tend to build compliance rather than commitment to the influencer's request

F

Extreme forms of assertiveness include blackmailing colleagues

T

Organizational politics refers to any use of power to influence others

F

Women have difficulty getting into senior management because they are usually exclude from make networks

T

First-line supervisors may have legitimate, reward and coercive sources of power, but their actual power is often limited by lack of discretion

T

Negotiation and the norm of reciprocity are associated with the influence process of exchange

T

Professions gain power in the marketplace by reducing their substitutability through the control of tasks and knowledge

T

Exaggerating one's resume is categorized within the influence strategy of persuassion

F

Networking helps to increase a person's expert power and centrality

T

Mergers and acquisitions tend to increase conflict due to different values and beliefs

T

Negotiators share information more fully by adopting a win-lose orientation

F

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