MAN 4240 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE part 2 MC

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256 terms · All multiple choice questions from worksheets 1-15 and exams 1-4, excluding 2 questions that were given

- is the study of what people, feel, and do in and around organizations

OB

Which of the following statements about the field of organizational behavior is FALSE?

OB is a self-contained discipline, independent of other disciplines

Which organizational behavior perspective discusses inputs, outputs, and feedback?

Open systems

Knowledge management is an extension of:

The open systems perspective of organizational behavior

Intellectual capital refers to :

the stock knowledge that resides in an organization

The perspective that effective organizations incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital is called

HPWP

- refers to the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad

Ethics

Employee behaviors that extend beyond normal job duties:

Are called organizational citizenship behaviors

Generous sick leave policies are known to:

Increase absenteeism

- refers to economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world

Globalization

All of these factors directly influence an employee's voluntary behavior and performance EXCEPT:

Moral intensity

Which of the following refers to the fact that motivation is goal-directed, not random?

Direction

Ability includes which of these?

Aptitudes and learned skills

Which of these refers to a person's beliefs about what behaviors are appropriate or necessary in a particular situation?

Role perceptions

Travel Happy Corp. gives simple accounts to newly hired employees, and then adds more challenging accounts as employees master the simple tasks. This practice mainly :

increases person-job matching

The 'Big Five' personality dimensions represent:

the aggregated clusters representing most known personality traits

Neuroticism is explicitly identified in:

big five personality dimensions

Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) includes all of these EXCEPT:

Internal/ external locus

Which of the following statements about values is FALSE?

A person's hierarchy of values typically changes a few times each year

All of the following are domains in Schwartz's values model EXCEPT:

conscientiousness

Selective attention is a component of :

the perceptual process

Our likelihood of noticing a person or object depends on its:

all of the above: size, motion, intensity, novelty

The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category refers to :

stereotyping

Prejudice and discrimination are most closely tied to which of these concepts?

Stereotyping

The statement "First impressions are lasting impressions" best represents the premises of :

Primacy effect

In organizational setting empathy:

does all of the above

Which of the following is NOT explicitly identified in the Johari Windo?

Selective attention

Which of the following is/are acquired mainly through observation and experience?

Tacit knowledge

Receiving a bonus after successfully completing an important project is an example of which of the following?

Positive reinforcement

Receiving a commission only when a sale is made represents

a variable ratio schedule

Which of the following statements about emotions is FALSE?

We continuously experience an emotion for days or weeks at a time

Anger, Fear, joy and sadness represent:

Types of emotions

Which of the following is NOT usually identified as a category of emotions?

Perceived

the uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are inconsistent with each other is called:

cognitive dissonance

Which of these statement about emotional labor is FALSE?

Research indicates that emotional display rules and standards are very similar around the world

Emotional intelligence is best described as:

A set of abilities

Emotional intelligence includes the ability to

Do all of the above

Relationship management is:

the highest level of emotional intelligence

In national polls,- percent of Americans have been satisfied with their jobs for the past decade or more

More than 85

The concept of affective organizational commitment includes:

All of the above

Which of these refers to the perspective that companies take their sustenance from the environment and, in turn, affect that environment through their outputs?

Open system

The topic of ethics is most closely associated with:

Values

- refers to an organizations moral obligation toward all of its stakeholders

CSR

The triple bottom line philosophy says that:

Companies should try to support the economic, social, and environmental spheres of sustainability

Organizational citizenship refers to:

employee behaviors that extend beyond normal job duties

Employees, suppliers and governments:

are organizational stakeholders

Which of the following is a form of knowledge acquisition?

Experimentation

Globalization occurs when an organization

increases its connectivity

Which of these factors directly influences an employee's voluntary behavior and performance

Only A and B, Motivation and Role perceptions

Aptitudes, skills, and competencies all fall under which of the following concepts

Ability

The relatively stable pattern of behaviors and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioral tendencies refers to

Personality

Which 'Big Five' personality dimension is most valuable for predicting job performance?

Conscientiousness

Schwartz's model organizes - into-.

Values, ten broader domains

Which of the following statements about cross-cultural values is TRUE?

People with high individualism can have any level (high or low) of collectivism

Ethics is most closely related to:

Values

The ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue is known as

ethical sensitivity

-is the process of filtering information received by our senses

selective attention

George believes that women have difficulty coping with the stress of executive decisions. Sally is promoted into a senior management position and George soon complains that Sally won't be able to cope with this job. George is exhibiting which of the following perceptual errors?

Stereotyping

What perceptual error occurs when a supervisor incorrectly rates an employee at a similar level across all performance dimensions based on an overall impression of that employee?

Halo effect

the objective of the Johari Window is to

Do all of the above

The A-B-C model of behavior modification helps us to :

understand how environmental factors influence learning and behavior

Behavioral modeling and self reinforcement are components of

social learning theory

Co-workers no longer praise you when you engage in dangerous pranks, so you stop engaging in these pranks

extinction

- involves modifying behavior to be consistent with required emotions but continuing to hold different internal feelings

Surface acting

Which of these statements about job satisfaction and customer satisfaction is TRUE?

Both B and C are true, satisfied employees have a more positive mood, which communicates friendliness to customers, and satisfied employees are less likely to quit, so customers receive more consistent and familiar service

When employees have higher job satisfaction they tend to

do both A' and D', provide friendlier service to customers, and provide more consistent service to customers because of their longer employment in the job

Employees who stay with an organization mainly because they believe it will cost them financially to leave, likely have:

high continuance commitment

All of these are prominent strategies for building organizational commitment EXCEPT

outsourcing

Employees with strong organizational commitment are more likely to

engage in organizational citizenship behaviors

Employees who experience feelings of inequity tend to change their comparison other:

if they can't alter the outcome/input ratio through other means

The optimal level of goal difficulty:

occurs where the goal is challenging but not impossible

In the Four drive theory, the drive- is most closely associated with the need for relative status and recognition

to acquire

Effective feedback is all of the following EXCEPT:

General

which of the following statements about drives is FALSE?

They include only basic physiological essentials, such as hunger and thirst

An individuals perceived probability that a particular level of effort will result in a particular level of performance refers to the:

E- to P expectancy

One of the main implications of Four-drive Theory is that:

employers should offer enough opportunity to keep all four drives in balance

People who are 'equity sensitive' tend to:

Want their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the outcome/input ratio of the comparison other

According to Expectancy Theory, a reward that is not wanted has:

a negative outcome valence

Voice and the right to appeal are two important practices that influence :

perceptions of procedural justice

The first step in self leadership is

personal goal setting

Which of the following is NOT an individual level performance reward?

gainsharing

Which of the following tends to create an "ownership culture" and align employee behaviors more closely to organizational objectives?

Stock option plans and employee stock ownership plans

Job evaluations are used in which type of reward system?

Job status rewards

Job enrichment usually:

None of the answers apply

Which of these factors, according to Herzberg, is a hygiene factor?

Job security

Self-leadership relies on ideas from:

All of the answers are correct

Which of the following systematically evaluates the worth of each job within the oranization?

Job evaluation

- are often "golden handcuffs" that potentially increase continuance commitment

Membership/ seniority rewards

Which of the following is most consistent with employability- namely, that employees are expected to continuously learn skills that will keep them employed?

Competency-based rewards

The rational decision making model begins with:

recognizing and defining the problem

Decision structure, risk of conflict, and decision commitment are:

contingencies of employee involvement

Satisficing refers to:

the tendency to choose an alternative that is good enough rather than the best

Which of the following is a potential problem when evaluating and choosing alternatives in decision making?

All of these are potential problems

Divergent thinking increases the level of:

creativity

Which of the following questions is NOT explicitly considered in the contingencies of employee involvement?

Do subordinates need to develop their decision-making skills?

The purely rational model of decision making is rarely practiced in reality because:

It assumes that people are efficient and logical in their information processing

The benefits of employee involvement increase with:

the novelty and complexity of the problem or opportunity

A decision maker's need to 'save face' tends to:

increase escalation of commitment

Convergent thinking mainly improves what stage of the creative process?

Convergent thinking does not improve any part of the creative process

Conforming, performing, and reforming are all

None of the above

Keeping the team size sufficiently small and designing tasks such that each team member's performance is measurable are two ways to:

minimize social loafing

An effective team member- and manages the team's work so it is performed efficiently and harmoniously.

coordinates

Which of the following allows employees to collectively plan, organize, and control work activities with little or no direct involvement of a higher- status supervisor?

Self- directed teams

Calculus, knowledge, and identification are:

three foundations of trust in teams

Informal groups:

All of the above

The Primary objective of team building is to

accelerate the team development process

According to social identity theory:

people define themselves by their group affiliations

All of the following organizational environment features potentially affects team effectiveness EXCEPT which one?

Team size

Employees tend to join a virtual or conventional team with:

a moderate or high level of trust in their new team members

In Maslow's needs hierarchy, the bottom four levels are collectively known as ---- needs, where as self-actualization is called a --- need

deficiency, growth

According to Equity Theory:

The importance of inputs and outcomes varies from one person to the next

If individuals are unable to satisfy a particular need, the ERG theory states that they:

redirect their efforts towards fulfilling a lower need in the hierarchy

Effective feedback:

none of the above

Which motivation theory is based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes?

Expectancy Theory

The distributive justice rule applies the concept of :

equity

---- produce emotions, whereas--- represent the motivational force of those emotions which are channeled toward particular goals

Drives, needs

Share option plans:

give employees the right to purchase company shares at a future date at a predetermined price

A unique feature of Herzberg's Motivator- Hygiene Theory is that it:

states that improving motivators increases job satisfaction but does not decrease job dissatisfaction

Scientific management includes which of the following?

Systematically dividing a job into its smallest possible elements and assigning these divided tasks to employees who are best qualified to perform them

Which reward system tends to discourage poor performers from voluntarily leaving the organization

Membership and seniority-based pay

Which of the following is an individual incentive?

Piece rate plans

What do impromptu storytelling, morphological analysis, and artwork have in common?

they are forms or associative play

Employee involvement tends to have which of the following benefits in decision making?

All of these statements are correct

Decision makers tend to rely on their implicit favorite when:

they evaluate decision alternatives

People tend to be more creative when:

they have a reasonable level of job security

A nonprogrammed decision is applicable in:

any nonroutine situation in which employee's must search for alternative solutions

Which of these is NOT a reason contributing to escalation of commitment?

Implicit favorites

A learning orientation is:

an important condition for creativity

A task force refers to:

any temporary team that investigates a particular problem and typically disbands when the decision is made

Groupthink is caused by:

All of these factors cause groupthink

The drive to bond and the dynamics of social identity theory both explain why people:

join informal groups

Pooled interdependence is:

the weakest form of interdependence other than complete independence

Brooks' Law says that adding more people to a late software project only makes it later. This law is mainly referring to:

process losses

---- has higher media richness than-----

Telephone, Email

When the sender has previous experience with the receiver, the sender--- to communicate in ambiguous situations

can use leaner media

Which of the following tends to be the preferred medium for coordinating work, minimizing status differences, and is an increasing source of information overload?

Email

Which of the following is NOT explicitly identified in the communication process model?

Empathy

Web-based magazines (e-zines):

allow companies to communicate breaking news quickly and efficiently to employees

Buffering, summarizing and omitting are ways to:

reduce information overload

Which of these communication channels has the highest media richness?

Video conference

What effect can jargon potentially have in organizations?

Jargon may improve communication efficiency, and other times lead to misunderstanding between sender and receiver

Which of the following activities helps us to cope with information overload?

All of the above

The three main components of active listening, in order, are:

sensing, evaluating and responding

The capacity to influence others in organizational settings is known as:

organizational power

Flattering your boss and helping co-workers with their work:

are forms of silent authority and upward appeal, respectively.

Which of these refers to the degree and nature of interdependence between the powerholder and others?

Centrality

Which of these sources of power originates mainly from the person rather than the position?

Referent power

Which of the following is one of the five main sources of power?

None of the above

Which of these refers to availability of alternatives?

Substitutability

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