exam 2

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Dolly the sheep is an example of

reproductive cloning

the individuals credited with the discovery of the structure of DNA are

James Watson and Francis Crick

about what percentage of a human's DNA is coding?


Hydrangeas have different colored flowers depending on the acidity of the soil. this is due to

an environmental effect

a promising vector being used in gene therapy is the:
rhino-associated virus
adeno-associated virus

adeno associated virus

alternative forms of a gene that influence the same trait and are found at the same location on homologous chromosomes are called


the pap smear is an important test for the presence or absence of cancer of the


which of the following have nitrogenous bases correctly paired in DNA

adenine - thymine
guanine - cytosine

the human genome consists of about ______ genes


the person considered the "father" of genetics is


a "transgenic" plant:
is the offspring of a clone
has been amplified by PCR
contains a foreign gene
is infected with bacteria

contains a foreign gene

which type of mutation will have the most evolutionary consequence:
mutation in a germ line cell
mutation in a lung cell
mutation in a stomach cell
mutation in a kidney cell

mutation in a germ line cell

which is not true according to mendels law of segregation:
each individual contains 2 factors for each trait
one factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual
factors separate from each other during gamete formation
each gamete contains one copy of each factor

one factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual

a nucleotide contains:
complementary purines and pyrimidines
a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base
RNA, proteins, and lipids
sugar and phosphate

a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base

unprocessed mRNA is found in the


if an organism shows a recessive phenotype, such as short pea plants, it can be (t)


the function of transfer RNA is to
transfer nucleotides to the nucleus
transmit coded information to the cytoplasm
turn DNA on and off
carry amino acids to ribosomes

carry amino acids to ribosomes

in humans widows peak (W) is dominant over straight hairline (w). if a heterozygous male marries a female with a straight hairline, what percentage of their children can be expected to have a widow's peak?


during the process of transcription the information in:
DNA information is converted into protein information
RNA information is converted into DNA information
DNA information is converted into RNA information
RNA information is converted into protein information

DNA information is converted into RNA information

an intervening sequence of DNA that is not expressed is called an


a woman who can roll her tongue (A) is married to a man who cant (a). 2 of their 4 children can roll their tongues and 2 cant. genotype? phenotype? of parents

woman Aa
man aa

Mr. X has been accused by Miss Z of fathering her child. The Child's blood type is AB and Miss Z's blood type is A. Mr X could not be the father if his blood type is

A or O

traits that are controlled by several sets or pairs of alleles, such as skin color and height in humans are the result of what form of inheritance


an adult stem cell differs from an embryonic stem cell in that it is not:
capable to further cell division
able to produce a blastocyst
able to accept methyl groups


four different chain terminating chemical tags that mimic nucleotides are used in:
therapeutic cloning
sequencing DNA

sequencing DNA

plasmids are important in biotechnology because they are:
a vehicle for the insertion of recombinant DNA into bacteria
recognition sites on recombinant DNA strands
surfaces for respiratory processes in bacteria
proviruses incorporated into the host DNA

a vehicle for the insertion of recombinant DNA into bacteria

in the procedure known as gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments are separated by their


about what percentage of the DNA of humans and chimpanzees is different at the level of single letters of the genetic code


the goal of the Human Genome Project was to:
isolate all DNA from a human cell
obtain a DNA fingerprint from every human
collect a sample of DNA from every human
determine the complete sequence of human DNA
surface for a protein synthesis in eukaryotic recombinants

determine the complete sequence of human DNA

the process of bringing the appropriate amino acid into position along the mRNA in the cytoplasm is


which of the following is not a dietary guideline for preventing cancer ?
lower total fat intake
eat high fiber food
eat more salt cured or smoked foods
eat more from cabbage family

eat more salt cured or smoked foods

these are all stages of genetic engineering except
cleavage of DNA
screening bacterial libraries
producing recombinant DNA
washing microarray gene chips

washing microarray gene chips

inserting a gene encoding a pathogenic microbe's surface protein into a harmless virus is the way a ____ is produced

piggyback vaccine

mendel tested for heterozygotes by using

test cross

removal of tissue to determine the presence of cancer is called


if one strand of DNA molecule has the base sequence GCATATT... its complimentary strand will have the sequence


if a fragment of eukaryotic RNA is needed that is made up only of exons, the place to look in the cell to find this is

in the cytoplasm

which of the following procedures would most likely be used to identify a specific individual of a population

DNA fingerprinting

When mRNA leave the cell's nucleus, it next becomes associated with

a ribosome

In horses, black coat (B) is dominant over brown coat (b), and being a trotter (T) is dominant over being a pacer (t). If you cross a male horse that is heterozygous for both characters with a female horse that is heterozygous for coat color but is a pacer, what would the possible gametes be for each parent?

Male gametes BT; Bt, bT, bt
Female gametes Bt and bt

What is Taq polymerase and how is it used?

Taq polymerase is a form of DNA polymerase that is heat resistant. It is used in PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

Before genetic engineering, from what did doctors obtain:
human growth hormone?

Insulin: from the pancreases of cattle, pigs, fish, etc
Human growth hormone: from human cadavers

Match the disease to the type of genetic disorder with which it is most commonly associated.
a. nondisjunction 1. sickle cell anemia
b. sex-linked 2.Huntington's disease
c. autosomal recessive 3.red-green color-blindness
d. autosomal dominant 4.Turner's syndrome
5.cystic fibrosis
6.Down's syndrome

C : sickle-cell anemia
D: Huntington's disease
B: red-green color-blindness
A: Turner's syndrome
C: cystic fibrosis
A: Down's syndrome

Explain "sticky ends". What are they? How are they made? Why are they useful?

Sticky ends are made by cleaving DNA with a restriction enzyme. The ends of the cut have an overhanging piece of single-stranded DNA since the two sides of the DNA are complementary. These exposed nucleotides readily join with others that have been cut with the same restriction enzyme. It makes it easy to join together ends of DNA from multiple sources, like inserting a gene into a plasmid.

Draw and complete a Punnett square to cross two cats that are each heterozygous for black fur color, where black is the dominant trait and white the recessive. What is the genotypic ratio of this cross? What is the phenotypic ratio of this cross? Be specific

B b
b Bb bb

genotype: 1 homozygous (or true-breeding) dominant
2 heterozygous
1 homozygous (or true-breeding) recessive

phenotype: 3 black to 1 white

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