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artifact

a man-made object left behind by people

archaeologist

a scientist that digs up human remins and analyzes them to study the human past

hominid

of the family of the primates that evolved into modern humans

tool

an object used to do something or make doing something easier

hunter-gatherer

a person who collects their food from nature and find and kill their food

ice-age

a long period of below average temperature when the ice at the poles expands (glacial growth)

history

the study of the past; everything before now; written record of the past

2.6 mya

The Stone age begins (date)

1.5 mya

The Ice Age Begins(date)

50,000 BC

How far back can you date with radiocarbon dating?

30,000 BC

Neanderthals die out(date)

10,000 BC

End of Ice Age(date)

3,000 BC

End of the Stone Age; Invention of Metal (date)

australopithecine

first hominids to walk upright and make tools

homo habilis

first hominids to scavenge meat

homo ergaster

hominids with longer legs, shorter arms, and larger brain than homo habilis; slender for heat tolerance, first emotion

homo erectus

first hominids to use fire

Neanderthals

first hominids to bury their dead

Homo sapiens sapiens

hominids that are the same as modern humans; had art

radiocarbon dating

a method of dating using the amount of C-14 left in an object

stratigraphy

dating by which layer of dirt or sediment the object was found in

Civilization

an advanced society that has specialization of labor, cities, government, large structures, and writing

Agriculture

the systematic and deliberate planting and growing of crops and the domestication of animal beginning in 10,000 BC

Domestication

the adaption of animals for human use

10,000 BC

Beginning of agriculture

Neolithic Revolution

the time period when systematic agriculture changed the way people lived drastically beginning in 10,000 BC and ending when the first Civilization started

Specialization of Labor

focusing on one job an making one thing while relying on others for everything else

3500 BC

Sumerians became a civilization

ca. 2300 BC

Sargon Invaded

ca. 1600 BC

Hittites came to power

ca. 1200 BC

Phoenicians became free

ca. 1000 BC

Hebrews established their first kingdom

ca. 700 BC

Assyrians conquered Phoenicia and Israel

ca. 612 BC

Chaldeans conquered Judah and enslaved the Jews

ca. 330 BC

Persians empire was conquered by Alexander (Greeks)

City-State

a central city and the surrounding farmland, usually walled in and has an independent government

Empire

a large settlement that controls many other peoples and places away from the central city

Theocracy

government run by a priest or priestess according to religious belief

Colony

a settlement owned by another settlement that is away and separate from that settlements home land

Pastoral Nomad

migratory herder who followed established trade routes and occasionally, in times of hardship, invaded

Indo-European

any group of people from central asia who spoke a language derived from one parent language

Polytheism

a religion worshiping multiple gods or deities

Dynasty

a series of rulers from the same family

Bureaucracy

an administrative government where many levels of appointed officials do the work of the government

Civil War

a war within a country, state, province, empire, etc.

3100-2700 BC

Predynastic period; unification and writing began

2700-2200 BC

Old Kingdom; Pyramids

2200-2000 BC

1st Intermediate; civil war moved capital to Thebes

2000-1650 BC

Middle Kingdom; Trade expansion and red sea canal

1650-1550 BC

2nd Intermediate; Bronze weapons and chariots

1550-1100 BC

New Kingdom; Empire

1100-331 BC

Decline and End

2500 BC

Indus Civilization began

1500 BC

Indo-Aryan Civilization began

1000 BC

First Vedas were written

ca. 500 BC

When Siddhartha Gautama lived

Monsoon

a seasonal wind pattern in southeast asia; dry in winter, wet in summer; unpredictable

Aryan

Indo-Europeans from central Asia who spoke sanskrit; war-like and nomadic, light skinned; invaded India and started 2nd Indian civilization

Sanskrit

Indo-European language brought by Aryans to India, became writing in 1000 BC

Kshatriyas

The warrior varna of the caste system; second highest varna composed of Aryan people

Sudras

lowest varna in the caste system composed of Indus people who did labor jobs

Atman

the individual soul

Brahmins

the priestly caste of hinduism

Karma

the belief that what you do in this life determines how you will be reborn into the next life

Dharma

the divine law of Hinduism and the caste system

Middle Path

Right View, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration, Right Effort, Right Speech, Right Intention, Right Livelihood,

Xia Dynasty

legendary first Chinese dynasty that was said to begin around 2000 BC

Aristocracy

government where power, wealth, and lands are in the hands of the hereditary upper class (aristocrats)

Ancestor Worship

Chinese practice of worshiping dead relatives to bring good or bad luck to the family and burning offerings to them

Dao

the natural order of things; "the way"

Filial Piety

"respect of the son for the father" a social concept that is the heart of the family concept. All members of the family must subordinate themselves to the desires of the male head of the family

Analects

Confucius's sayings written down by his followers

Laozi

legendary creator of daoism, said to have lived 500 BC

Legalism

political philosophy in which harsh law, force, and following the law through fear of punishment are all used

Ideographs

a combination of two or more pictographs to represent an idea

1750 BC

Beginning of the Shang Dynasty; China became Civ.

1045 BC

End of the Shang Dynasty, beginning of the Zhou Dynasty and the Western Zhou period at Xian

ca. 500 BC

emergence of Confucianism and Daoism; time of trouble and chaos in China

403 BC

beginning of the Period of Warring States(warfare between territories to find the next dynasty)

256 BC

official end of the Zhou Dynasty, continued civil war though

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