Three characteristics of a third world country
high infant mortality rates, poverty, economic dependence on better-developed countries
What are the second world countries?
Any country that was aligned with the Soviet Union at one time, ex. Czechoslovakia
What are first world countries?
What movement had been fostering the Nationalist movements?
What is Pan Africanism? What did it emphasize?
the unity of Africans and people of African descent all over the world.
What are the four reasons nations in Africa are not successful?
Not industrialized, lack natural resources, natural resources were controlled by other countries, colonies do not have the experience to rule themselves.
Which country's colonies were some of the first to seek independence? Why?
Britains- It felt hypocritical about colonialism, war left her weak and unable to afford colonies, and a new African middle class began to emerge in the cities.
What country's independence movement was lead by Kwame Nkrumah?
Ghana, or the Gold Coast
____________ was inspired by ___________ throughout his fight for Ghana's independence.
Kwame Nkrumah, the teachings of Mohandas Gandhi and the Pan-African movement
When did the Gold Coast gain its indepence? What is its name now? Who changed its name?
1957, Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah
After Ghana gained its independence, what happened to Kwame Nkrumah?
He became prime minister, changed its name from Gold Coast to Ghana, and created the Organization for African Unity
What group did Kwame Nkrumah create? What did it promote?
Organization of African Unity- promoted Pan-Africanism until the end of colonialism
Kwame Nkrumah background information
educated abroad, schoolteacher, preached nonviolence, used boycotts and strikes ultimately successful in making Ghana independent in 1957
What is the state of Ghana today?
Who led the fight for independence in Kenya? Who was he a spokesperson for?
Jomo Kenyatta- Kikuyu people, who had been driven off their land by European settlers
Who are the Mau Mau rebels? What happened to Kenyatta because of this?
Rebels (made up of Kikuyu farmers) rise up to gain liberation. Kenyatta was jailed.
What happened to Kenyatta after Kenya gained its independence?
He was released from prison and became Kenya's first prime minister.
How did Algeria gain its independence?
Despite about 1 million french settlers fighting to keep algeria a french colony, a strong nationalist movement emerged and fighting between the two resulted in Algeria's freedom.
South Africa was originally what country's colony?
When was apartheid put into place? What was apartheid?
1948- separation of races
What changes were made due to apartheid's installment?
It required black Africans and other non-whites to live in certain zones called homelands, and included the segregation of public facilities and transportation and forbade interracial marriage.
In what year was the ANC organized? What was the ANC?
1912- political party that used boycotts and nonviolence (civil disobedience) to oppose Apartheid.
Who was Nelson Mandela? What happened to him due to his involvement in the ANC?
He was an important ANC leader who became a symbol of the struggles in South Africa. He was sentenced to life in prison due to his involvement in the ANC.
Who was Desmond Tutu?
a black Anglican bishop and civil rights leader. Convinced foreign nations and business to limit trade and investments in South Africa. This would hurt South Africa's economy, and end Apartheid.
Who is F.W. de Klerk? What three important actions did he take to reform South Africa?
the president of South Africa- started in 1989, he repealed segregation laws, legalized the ANC, and released Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990 after 25 years in prison.
When was South Africa's first election in which all races could vote? Who was elected president?
1994, Nelson Mandela
What problems occured due to European countries drawing colonial boundaries wherever they cared to?
The boundaries were made without consideration for tribal territories and ethnic groups. As a result some ethnic groups were separated into different nations. Other ethnic groups were united within other nations. Loyalty to one's tribe is stronger than loyalty to one's nation.
What lead Nigeria to civil war? What happened in their civil war?
tribalism- more than 200 ehtnic groups live within the borders of Nigeria. Upon Nigeria's independence, several groups fought for power. Muslims (Fulani & Housa) vs. Christian (Ibo & Yorubo). Ibo people create state of Biafra- just want to live in peace and be left alone. Nigeria put a blockade on Biafra that ended the war but nearly a million people were killed by the war or through salvation.
What lead Rwanda to genocide? Who was killed during the genocide? How did it end?
ethnic conflict- Before 1994, Rwanda was 85% Hutu and 14% Tutsi. In 1994, Hutu extremists, supported by government officials, launched a genocide against the Tutsis. According to estimates, more than 500,000 people were killed in just a few months. The genocide stopped when a Tutsi-led rebel army took control of the government.
What was the conflict of India after its decolonization? What did British officials do about it? Was it successful? Why or why not?
In India Hindus were the majority and Muslims were the minority. Muslims demanded a Muslim state. In 1947, British officials drew up borders that created Hindu state of India and Muslim Pakistan. There was a west Pakistan and an east Pakistan who later changed her name to Bangladesh. Both of these areas had high concentrations of Muslims. This division was unsuccessful because it did not bring peace. Instead it set off mass migrations of Muslims fleeing India and Hindus fleeing pakistan. Millions were killed crossing borders.
Who killed Mohandas Gandhi? What do we attribute his death to?
a Muslim fanatic assassinated him- Due to conflict after India's decolonization
What is the relationship between India and Pakistan today?
India and Pakistan continue to have conflict over border disputes. Tensions between Hindus and Muslims still exist and continue to erupt into violence.
Who is Jawarlal Nehru? What did he advocate?
ally of Gandhi- 1st prime minister of India. advocated industrialization, promoted the "green revolution", a mixed economy, and a policy of nonalignment
What is the Nonalignment Movement? How was this beneficial to India?
During the Cold War India will follow a policy of non-alignment. This policy instituted by Nehru allowed India to accept aid from both capitalist and communist countries.
What type of economy did Nehru install in India?
In India's mixed economy, what two things are crucial?
foreign aid and foreign investment
India's mixed economy- what does the "mixed" refer to
public and private ownership
What did Nehru do to accomplish the goal of India's green revolution? (to make India self-sufficient in food grains)
introducing higher-yielding varieties of seeds in 1965, increased use of fertilizers and irrigation.
What was the goal of India's green revolution?
to make India self-sufficient in food grains
Who is Indira Gandhi? What controversy caused her assassination?
Nehru's daughter, the prime minister of India for 18 years, continued Nehru's policy. Faced corruption charges and internal rebellion- assassinated in 1984.
What change did India's caste system undergo in the 1990's?
social change- the campaign to end the harsh treatment of the Untouchables caste was recognized. The government set aside jobs and places in universities for Untouchables.
The Indian constitution of 1950 granted rights to __________ and asked for a stop to the unfair treatment of the _______ _______.
women; Untouchables caste
What change did the role of women undergo in India?
Gave women the right to vote and recognized their right to divorce and inherit property.
What obstacles impeded India's progress?
industrial growth- lack of oil and natural gas; social equality- Hindu caste system, less education for women and poor, and ethnic and religious prejudices; food production- high cost of farm equipment, rapid population growth, floods and droughts.
What is Sikh? What two religions is it comprised of?
religion began in India in 1500's by blending elements of Islam and Hinduism.
What did the Sikhs ask for from India? What happened? How did President Indira Gandhi respond?
In the 1980's the Sikhs wanted to have self-rule in the province of Punjab. They protested in the Golden Temple to express their demands. She sent troops to put down the protest and many Sikhs died- she was assassinated by two Sikhs.