American citizens who were organized to always be ready to fight.
Where a battle between American militiamen and the British took place when the British attempted to take supplies and colonists. British retreated but American lives were lost. After this battle, The Americans began to prepare for war against Britain. [1st battle]
Where a battle between American militiamen and the British took place when the British tried to take supplies and colonists. British retreated but American lives were lost. After this battle, the Americans began to prepare for war against Britain. [2nd battle]
Major John Pitcairn
British general who led the army during the battle at Concord. He leads men up to the militiamen and tells Americans to leave. They obey, but a shot goes off which leads to the Battle of North Bridge and the Battle of Bunker's Hill
American spy during the American Revolution who was sent to spread the word of whether the British were coming by land or sea before the Battles at Lexington and Concord.
Breed's (Bunker) Hill
Battle between the Americans & British that took place after the Battle of North Bridge. This was the last battle before the American's Olive Branch Petition, which was the last attempt to avoid war with Britain.
Gen. William Howe
General who led the British army to defeat Washington & his army in the Battle of Long Island. This was a huge loss for the Americans, who lost more than 10,000 soldiers.
Sir Henry Clinton
One of the British commanders of the Revolutionary War.
Gen. John Burgoyne
British general who led army to New York and fought in the Battle of Saratoga. Surrendered in battle. This was one of the turning points in the Revolutionary War.
He was once in the American army. Conquered Ft. Ticonderoga. Later betrayed the country by attempting to give up West Point to the British. After being caught, he became a general of the British army because of his wife, Peggy Shippen.
British fort captured by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen to get equipments for war. Take cannons and force British to evacuate. Huge win for the colonists.
Olive Branch Petition
 After Breed's Hill, this petition sent to King George III was the last appeal to stop violence. After George III ignored this, the Americans declared war on the British.
Also known as Torries. Citizens that were loyal to England. Helped British army during the Revolutionary War.
German soldiers who fought with the British during the Revolutionary War. One famous battle vs them was the battle at Trenton.
This was written by Thomas Paine which advocated independence & a republican form of government. This was extremely influential among Americans and encouraged many to revolt.
Advocate for American independence. Wrote "Common Sense" and "American Crisis" which encouraged Americans to revolt and create a republican government.
Richard Henry Lee
American who proposed that the states should be independent on July 2, 1776. Two days later Americans declared independence.
Virginian who was the main author of the Declaration of Independence. He would later become the first Democratic-Republican president and cause the Revolution of 1800.
Declaration of Independence
This document was written and approved by July 4, 1776 declaring independence from Britain. It included doctrines of individual liberty, popular sovereignty, & a republican government.
"The American Crisis"
Written by Thomas Paine which supported the Americans to fight for independence. Encouraged the Americans to revolt.
Battle of Trenton
Battle on Christmas 1776. Washington's army vs. Hessians for a fort in Trenton, NJ. Americans WIN. Huge boost for American colonists after the demoralizing Battle of Long Island.
[Oct. 17, 1777] American army led by Heratio Gates defeated John Burgoyne's army here. After this win for the Americans, the French decided to become their allies. This was an important factor in the American victory of the Revolutionary War.
Polish patriot who helped the Americans in the Revolutionary War.
The place where Washington kept his army in the winter of 1777. They had to deal with harsh & cold weather. There, Baron von Steuben trained Washington's soldiers and made them better.
Baron von Steuben
Prussian military officer who trained Washington's army while they were in Valley Forge. He made the army more disciplined and tougher.
After the Treaty of Alliance between France & American, this French military officer aided the American army during the Revolution.
The Loyalist wife of Benedict Arnold who caused him to change sides.
Benedict Arnold's messenger between Arnold and the British. He got caught by the colonists and Benedict Arnold's plan was discovered.
Polish American general known as the "Father of American calvary". He trained and organized the first American calvary.
British general who fought in most of the last battles of the Revolution. He tried to attack the South & take the Virginias, the Carolinas, & Georgia but he was defeated. This ended the Revolution, giving America independence.
American guerrilla fighter against the British.
"Swamp Fox" American guerilla fighter who led other guerrillas to win battles to recapture South Carolina from the British.
General who led the American army to a victory in the battle at Saratoga. Lost the Battle of Camden vs. Cornwallis's army.
American who takes over the army. He recaptures the Carolinas from the British. This hurt the British terribly and led to them losing the Revolutionary War.
Cruel (overseer/proprietor?) in the South. Southerners hated him.
Battle in South Carolina won by Gen. Nathanael Greene vs. Loyalists. The Americans took about 1000 prisoners.
Worked with Nathaniel Greene to take over the American army and fight to recapture the Carolinas from the British.
Battle during the Revolutionary War that was won by the Americans.
[October 1781] Battle with Gen. Rochambeau's army & the Continental army vs. Cornwallis's army. British LOSE. Ends the Revolutionary War and America becomes independent.
Frenchman who led the French army that aided the Revolutionary War. His army helped defeat Cornwallis's army in the Battle of Yorktown.The Americans won the war.
Adam De Grasse
French naval officer during the Revolutionary War who led the French fleet at Yorktown to block out the British from Chesapeake Bay. This led to the defeat of Cornwallis's army and American independence.
Prime Minister of Britain during the Revolutionary War.
King during the Revolutionary War. He wanted the Americans to be repressed and under control. Completely against the Revolution.
John Paul Jones
American captain during the American Revolution. He commanded "the Providence", captured 16 British ships, attacked England and Ireland, Got "Bohemmie Richard" from the British.
 John Paul Jones captures this British ship in a navy battle. Huge conquest for the Americans.
Capt. John Berry
American leader of commerce raiders, who sought out the hurt Britain's economy by attacking its merchant ships. He cost Britain 7 million dollars in damage.
Privately owned ships that were turned into warships. A Letter of Marque was needed to operate these ships. Americans used this to sink/damage many British ships. -> Lots of damage.
Society of Cincinatus
Society established for military officers.
American diplomat/inventor who helped develop an alliance between France and American -> Treat of Alliance 1778.
 Group of British negotiators who went to America to try and compromise after losing the Revolutionary War. FAIL.
Treaty of Paris
 This treaty ended the American Revolution. It re-established trade between America & Britain. It also doubles the size of America by lengthening borders. Gives America Grand Banks. It also honored all debts before the Revolution. This helped smooth relations between Britain and America.
American financier who handled the national debt of $80 mil. He also dealt with slavery issue. He was vs. slavery. He also wanted life terms for senators, a property qualification for voting, & a strong president w/ veto power. Advocate for personal liberty & free markets.
This term means to get rid of slavery. There were many groups advocating this such as the American Colonization Society, etc. This cause became more popular in the 19th cent.
Articles of Confederation
 The 1st American Constitution. It gave the government authority to declare war & peace, make treaties, adjudicate disputes between states, borrow & print money, etc. Promoted central legislature. There was no separate executive nor a judiciary. Didn't give gov. authority to tax. Failed.
Belief in a strong central government .
North African pirates who the Americans bribed to not raid their merchant ships. Thomas Jefferson didn't want to pay bribe which led to Barbary of Tripolitan War [1802-1815]. Stephen Decatur was the hero of this war. America ended up still paying the bribe, but it was reduced.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
This plan created territories that would one day become the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, & Wisconsin. Didn't allow slaver in these territories. This was the only successful part of the Articles of Confederation because it led to orderly settlement.
Bill of Rights
 The 10 amendments which were a safeguard of fundamental person rights. This was added by the Federalists to the Constitution. This helped lower some tension between the Federalists & Antifederalists.
 Revolt in Pennsylvania by farms because of Hamilton's excise tax on alcohol. This raised the price of corn whiskey which they traded. Farmers attacked local tax collectors and other forms of authority. President Washington ended rebellion.
The period between the end of the Revolution to the President Washington's inauguration. During this time America developed its 1st and 2nd constitution and was trying to organize the country.
Also known as the "Large State Plan", this was proposed by James Madison & Edmund Rudolph who said representation should be based on population. Suggested a bicameral - two houses (Senate & House of Reps). Lower house elects Upper house.
New Jersey Plan
Also known as the "Small State Plan". Suggested unicameral congress which had equal representation stronger executive committee.
He proposes the Virginia Plan in support of large states. He also helped write the Federalists Papers.
He makes a compromise between the New Jersey Plan & the Virginia Plan. He decided the House of Reps. would be based on population & the Senate would have equal representation (2 from each state).
This compromises discusses the representation of slaves. Southerners wanted slaves to be counted, but Northerners didn't. It was agreed that slaves would count as 3/5 of a freeman.
Also known as the "Necessary and Proper Clause", this gave Congress the power to pass laws. This was controversial between Federalists and Antifederalists because Antifederalists didn't want to give the central government too much power.
This group of selected men from each state voted the President into office.
Veto and pocket veto
This allows the President to be able to veto any bills indirectly. This prevents one branch from having too much power.
This gives courts the right to veto law by President if they see it's unconstitutional. This was controversial because the Democratic Republicans didn't want the Federalists to obtain more power by using the courts.
"The Federalist Papers"
This was written by Federalists to convince Anitfederalists about their ideas. Written by Madison & Hamilton. This was successful.
Federalist who was a war hero & the first Treasurer of State. He designed a financial program that helped America get out of their financial debt. He enhanced national authority and favored financiers & merchants. He established a national bank & excise taxes/ revenue tariffs. He was extremely successful.
He was the 1st chief justice of the Supreme Court.
American inventor of the cotton gin. This led to a huge cotton boom especially in the south. Also made slavery more prominent.
Hamilton put the nation's capital in the South to smooth tensions about his Federalist ideas. It was first named Washington City.
2nd Great Awakening
This religious revival made the United States a Christian society. During this time, Methodist, Baptists, and Church of Christ emerges & become popular. Universalists preached of universal salvation. These religions preached of equality and condemned slavery. It was disliked in the south. African Americans embraced this religious revival though. 2nd Great Awakening encouraged cooperation among denominations. Women became more involved in public activities & education. It helped the US have a national identity.
During the 2nd Great Awakening, this became one of the largest denominations in America. They preached of religious fellowship and equality among all people. Attracted African Americans.
During the 2nd Great Awakening, this became one of the largest denominations in America. They preached of religious fellowship and equality among all people. Attracted African Americans.
A new religious group that emerged during the 2nd Great Awakening. They preached universal salvation and gained many converts in northern New England. They didn't believe in the Calvinist predestination.
A group organized by Mother Ann Lee in Britain that showed religious enthusiasm among women. Mother Ann Lee later moved to America and Shaker groups developed in the countryside. This showed how the 2nd Great Awakening changed woman's religious roles.
He wrote the 1st American English grammar book called the Blue Back Book and later wrote the Webster Dictionary to make the English language more uniform. This contributed much to the American English language used today.
British man who secretly brought the spinning jenny to America. This helped boost the American industry that was emerging in the 18th century.
Man who created the power loom. This led to a town (named after him) in Massachusetts being one of 1st industrial towns in America.
The first Secretary of War.
Bank of the US
First national bank est. by Alexander Hamilton. It's jointly owned by private stockholders and the national government. The bank can make loans to merchants, handle government funds, and issue bills of credit which would help stabilize the economy.
This was how the Federalists led by Hamilton wanted to rule the government. They wanted a strong, central government. Focused on the elastic clause & promoted industry and was anti-French.
This was how Democratic Republicans led by Jefferson. Advocated state power and local control. Emphasized the 10th Amendment (any power not w/ central goes to the state). They were pro-French.
George Washington's speech at the end of his term. H encouraged America to not get involved in foreign affairs and not have political parties. He enforced the "isolation concept".
Frenchman who went to the USA to make an alliance with France. He attempted to get supporters -> him being deported.
This was the forcing of anyone who couldn't prove their citizenship on merchant ships to be a part of the British army. One important example was the Chesapeake Leopard Affair. This later contributed to the war with Britain.
Democratic Republican who ran vs. Jefferson in the election 1800. It was a tie, but Hamilton convinced the House of Reps. to make Jefferson president. This started a rivalry between Hamilton and him. Later had a duel vs. Hamilton and killed him. He went to the west to try & make Louisiana a separate nation, but failed. He was captured and tried for treason.
3 American diplomats went to France to stop from taking American merchant ships with the French king. Talleyrand, the French ambassador, accepted a bribe from the Americans. When President Adams discovered this scheme, Congress stopped trade with France -> Quasi-war.
French ambassador who accepted the American diplomat's bribe to get France to stop taking American merchant ships. -> America stop trade w/ France & Quasi-war.
Alien and Sedition Acts
 Passed Adams. It increased the amount of years one had to live in America to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years. President can also deport "dangerous" aliens or go to prison without trial. Disliked among citizens and helped play a role in the election of a Democratic Republican.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798
 Jefferson and Madison made this against Alien & Sedition Acts. It said that if the gov. passed a law that was harmful to the state, the state could null it in that specific state. Introduced "nullification & interposition".
Idea that said a state convention could declare federal laws unconstitutional if they seemed to overstep Congressional powers.
This meant state government could position itself as a buffer between federal government and people's rights.
 The president and vice-president are put together on the ballot and come from the same party.
Barbary (Tripolitan) War
 American war vs. North Africans because Jefferson refused to pay the bribe to stop pirates from attacking American ships. After the war, America continued to pay the bribe but at a lower price.
He was the hero of the Barbary (Tripolitan) War.
Marbury vs. Madison
 Court case over the issue of whether Marbury should have the appointment to Supreme Court that Madison refused to give to him. Marshall decided that Marbury would not get the writ of mandamus & passed the judicial review to give the judiciary more power.
Federalist Supreme Court chief justice who enforced judicial authority, supremacy of national laws, & traditional property rights. He passed the judicial review and dealt with many important cases such as the Marbury v. Madison, Fletcher v. Peck, Dartmouth College v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden.
First step in removing the president from office, in which charges of wrongdoing are passed by House of Reps. A trial is conducted by the Senate to see whether the president is guilty of charges.
Slaves revolted vs. France and became its own nation.
He was the leader of the slave revolt in Haitian Revolt. He was captured by the French, put in prison and later died there. Extremely influential.
French general sent by Napoleon to stop the slave rebellion in Haiti.
After Jefferson sent James Monroe to negotiate an alliance with Britain, France sold the Louisiana area ($15 mil) because Napoleon was afraid America would try and invade Louisiana. This doubled the size of America and gave it a whole new western territory.
Lewis and Clark
Two men who explored the new western land gotten from the Louisiana purchase in 1804. They got help from Sacajewea to create maps of the new land.
This battle was where the 3rd Coalition defeated Napoleon and ends the Napoleonic Wars which hurt American commerce.
Napoleon est. Berlin-Milan decrees which put into place this alliance. The alliance prohibited Europeans from trading with Britain.
French king during the early 19th cent. who tried to take over Europe. The 3rd Coalition banned together vs him and at the Battle of Trafalger he was defeated. He est. a Continental System & stopped Europeans from trading w/ Britain. When Portugal & Spain continued to trade with Britain, he invaded them as well. America was stuck in the middle of the European issues caused by this man.
Orders in Council
British met and passed which reduced neutral trade and enforced a naval blockade against France and its allies. This hurt American trade as well.
An American warship was stopped by the British. They took American sailors and put them into the British army -> This led to many riots among Americans and led to Jefferson est. an embargo against everyone.
 James Madison modifies Jefferson's embargo act into this. He made the embargo only against Britain and France. In , he est. the Macon's Bill #2 as well.
Macon's Bill #2
 This bill said that whichever country, Britain or France, lifts their actions towards America, America will begin to trade with that country first.
War of 1812
War between Britain and America because of maritime disputes & frontier issues. Southerners were more supportive of it than Northerners. Americans invaded Canada but later surrendered. There were many navy battles & fights. Important battles were Battle of Lake Erie and the Battle of the Thames. British invaded Washington DC and burned down the White House. War ended with the Treaty of Ghent  where Britain and America decided to have no gains/losses.
This tribe was led by Tecumeh. With the help of the British, this tribe revived the Western Confederacy which taught going back to traditions & not listening to the Americans. When the leader Tecumeh was killed in the Battles of the Thames, this ended the alliance between this tribe and the Creeks.
The Native American tribe who were in an alliance with the Shawnees but it ended at the Battle of the Thames when Tecumeh was killed.
Shawnee leader who revived the Western Confederacy with the Prophet and taught of going back to old traditions, not drinking alcohol, & not listening to Americans. He was killed in the Battle of Thames.
Native American leader who helped his brother, Tecumeh, revive the Western Confederacy and taught of going back to old traditions, not drinking alcohol, & not listening to Americans.
Also known as "Red Eagle". He fought vs. Native Americans in the War of 1812.
 Battle in the War of 1812 between Americans & British-supported Creek Native Americans. Andrew Jackson led the victory. Native Americans had to cede 23 million acres of land.
Military hero of the Battle of Horseshoe Bend & the Battle of New Orleans. He later became president. He used the Spoils System to get his "Kitchen Cabinet". He created a stronger national government. He strongly disliked the Native Americans -> Indian Removal Act & the Trail of Tears.
William Henry Harrison
General who won the Battle of Thames and killed Tecumse in the War of 1812h. He also won the Battle of Tippecanoe and burned down Prophetstown which was the holy village founded by The Prophet. He later became president in 1840.
 Battle in the War of 1812 between Americans and Tecumseh & his Native peoples. William Henry Harrison led this people to a victory and burned down Prophetstown.
Democratic Republicans from the West & South who supported taking land from the Canada & Florida.
After the Democratic Republican party divides, he leads the National faction. He put together the Missouri Compromise, which said Maine would be entered as a slave-free state & Missouri was entered as a slave state. He was a great political compromiser.
John C. Calhoun
Democratic Republican war hawk who encouraged Madison to declare war on Britain -> War of 1812. He was also the vice president of Andrew Jackson and spoke against the Tariff of 1828. He supported the Southerners and spoke for state/local power.
American battle ship that was vs. HMS Guerriere in the War of 1812. America won.
Battle of Lake Erie
Battle between the Americans and the British in the War of 1812. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry defeated British here.
Oliver Hazard Perry
Commodore who defeated the British at the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812.
Battle of Thames
Americans led by Gen. William Henry Harrison fought Indian forces & killed Shawnee leader, Tecumeh at this battle in the war of 1812
When the British invaded Washington DC during the War of 1812, they first passed this fort. Although they didn't claim it, they bombarded it. It was here that Francis Scott Key wrote the "Star Spangled Banner"
American who defended Ft. McHenry in the War of 1812. His family owned the original flag at this fort.
Francis Key Scott
When the British bombarded Fort McHenry during the War of 1812, this man saw it and wrote the "Star Spangled Banner" which would later become the national anthem.
Battle of New Orleans
This battle was after the War of 1812, but they didn't know. The British led by Lord Pakenham attacked the Americans. Andrew Jackson led the Americans to a significant victory that boosted the American spirit and led to the disappearance of the Federalist party.
Secession crisis -> this. Federalists met here to see whether they should leave the Union or not. When they hear about the Battle of New Orleans, people hear about it and the Federalists look bad -> the disappearance of the Federalist party.
Era of Good Feelings
[1812-1824] This was the period during Monroe's presidency when there was only one political party, the Democratic Republican party. This only lasted a short period of time because the Democratic Republican party split between the National faction & the Jeffersonian faction.
Fletcher vs. Peck
Case where Marshall defined contract to include grants & charters made by state governments. This case involved when a grant of land made by Georgia to the Yazoo Land Company was cancelled. Marshall said that a legislative grant can't be changed. This safeguarded property rights & protects out-of-state investors. This helped the development of a national capitalist economy.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
Case where Marshall established that the Constitution gives broad powers to the national government when the Maryland legislature tried to tax the national Second Bank to help state-chartered banks & said congress didn't have the power to charter a national bank.
Gibbon vs. Ogden
Case where Aaron Ogden tried to have a private steamboat passenger service. Marshall decided that this was unconstitutional and sided with Thomas Gibbons who had a federal license to transport goods & people. This gave national government jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
Dartmouth College Case
Case where New Hampshire tried to change Dartmouth's charter est. by George III into a public university. Marshall & the Court decided that a royal charter couldn't be altered by state legislature.
War started when Seminole Native Americans attempted to fight against US to remain in Florida after Jackson's Indian Removal Policy. US buys Florida which leads to Seminoles being forced to leave.
 This agreement made by Henry Clay accepted Missouri as a slave state & est. Maine as a slave-free state. Also est. a line across the US. The states above were free and ones below were slave states. (This line was not successful).
Seminole chief who fought against Gen. Jackson in the Seminole Wars.
 With the help of John Q. Adams, this was an agreement between Canada and the US to de-militarize the Great Lakes. No forts, etc. This reduced AMerican and British naval forces on the Great lakes.
Anglo-American Convention of 1818
This meeting est. the border between Canada and the Louisiana purchase with the help of John Q. Adams. For the more western lands, they waited longer until there were more settlers in the area.
John Q. Adams
Democratic Republican who served as President Monroe's secretary of state & later became president in 1824. He negotiated the Rush-Bagot Treaty, the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819, & took part in the Anglo American Convention of 1818. He persuaded Monroe to develop the Monroe Doctrine. This helped America assert diplomatic leadership of the Western Hemisphere. During his presidency, he est. the Tariff of 1828 which was hated by Southerners.
Tariff of 1828
Tariff established by John Q. Adams. This protected manufacturers in New England & Pennsylvania by raising tariffs on wool, hemp, & raw materials. This was hated by Southerners and called the "Tariff of Abomination". The Exposition and Protest was written against this tariff.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
 This was written by Southerners to protest John Q. Adam's Tariff of 1828 which raised dues on raw materials, textiles, and iron goods. In this, South Carolina nullified the tariff. John C. Calhoun helped write this because of his strong support for the South.
The wife of Andrew Jackson. During his election, there was much mud-slinging about her because of her unofficial divorce of her ex-husband. She later died & Jackson was deeply affected by her death and blamed the media.
Martin van Buren
Democratic Vice President of Andrew Jackson who later won Presidency in the Election of 1836. Known as Little Magician or Red Fox. He didn't recharter the Bank which led to the Panic of 1837. He also was president during the Texas Revolt.
This was used by President Jackson. He rewarded political supporters with appointments into his Cabinet. He also had an informal Cabinet known as the "Kitchen Cabinet".
When John Eaton (Jackson's secretary of war) married the popular Peggy O'Neal, the other Cabinet wives strongly disliked her. Jackson became angry and this split the Cabinet and hurt his term as president.
Indian Removal Acts
 Jackson's policy force Native Americans to give up their lands & move to the West. This was met with a lot of protest: The Black Hawk War, the 2nd Seminole War, but the Natives eventually surrendered and gave up their lands for nothing. The Cherokees were forced to walk the journey known has the Trail of Tears, where 3000 of their people died.
Trail of Tears
1,200 mile walk to the new Indian Territory after Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act. Thousands of Cherokees died along this path as they were forced to give up their lands and move.
Panic of 1837
When President van Buren didn't re-charter the National Bank, money was spread among state banks. Cut from British funds, planters & merchants began to fall into debt and take out species from banks. Soon everyone wanted their money because of the economic crisis & lack of gold and silver. Banks didn't have enough money -> 900 banks failing.
Meixcan who became dictator in 1831. He was involved in the Texas Revolt, but later signed over Texas for his life. He was also leader during the Mexican War but lost the northern part of Mexico in that war.
Americans who settled in Mexico, especially in Texas. These people wanted to bring slavery into Texas which was against the Mexican Constitution. This led to Texas fighting for independence in the Texas Revolt
One of American men who brought Americans into Texas which led them to gaining land. He advocated being good Mexican & to learning their culture.
American folk hero who fought and died at the Alamo during the Texas Revolt in 1836.
American folk hero who fought and died at the Alamo during the Texas Revolt in 1836.
American commander at the Alamo.
General who led Texas Rebels in the Battle of Jacinto to destroy the Mexican army that had fought at the Alamo. This established the independence of Texas.
Battle between the Mexicans and Americans because Americans wanted the independence of Texas & to legalize slavery. Santa Anna fought vs Americans in San Antonio and destroyed the Americans at this place. This angered Americans which inspired a strong number of Texas rebels to fight at San Jacinto and win the independence of Texas.
Battle of San Jacinto
Battle between Texas rebels led by Sam Houston and the Mexican army led by Santa Ana. Texas became independent.
Log Cabin and Hard Cider
This was van Buren's campaign during the Election of 1840. It was first used to insult him but van Buren used it as a way to attract people in his campaign
The vice-president of William Henry Harrison who became president when Harrison died. He was strongly disliked by people & his Whig Cabinet that later retired because he was actually a Democratic. He est. the Webster-Ashburton Treaty but that was all.
This agreement done by President John Tyler cleared up Canada border issues with Britain.
Oregon Treaty of 1846
Agreement during President Polk's term which regularized the border between Canada and the US across the country. Polk does this & manages to avoid war with Britain.
The belief that the Americans had a right to the western land and to expand. Polk is usually associated with this because of his success with gaining the far western land for the Mexicans.
During Polk's presidency, this war was between America & Mexico for the western lands & the argument over border issues in Texas. Mexicans lose and give all northern land to America. Later discover gold in the lands which hurt Mexicans. Important battles: Buenavista, Cerro Gordo, Churnbrsco, Chapultec. War ends with Treaty of Guadalupe-Hildalgo.
War hero who invaded Mexico and later became president in 1848.
James K. Polk
He was elected President in 1844, known as a "dark horse because he was a random runner no one knew about. He believed strongly in Manifest Destiny which -> to the Mexican War and the conquest of western lands.
After the Battle of Monterrey, Taylor goes to Saltillo and fights in the Btatle of Buenavista. Americans defeated Mexicans. This was Taylor's greatest battle.
General known as "Fuss & Feathers" Leads American army into Veracruz and conquers them. He also defeated the Mexicans at Cerro Gordo & Churnbrusco. War hero.
Robert E. Lee
American officer who helped in the battles @ Cerro Gordo , Churnbrusco, & Chapultepec.
Minor American officer during the Mexican War.
Port that was captured by Winfield Scott's army during the Mexican War.
This was where Winfield Scott destroyed Santa Ana's army. Robert E. Lee, a military officer, helped fight in this battle.
Mexico's military academy in Mexico City that Robert E. Lee attacked and won. Mexico still pays respects to the Niños Heroes, young boys who defended Chapultepec from Americans.
Young Mexican cadets who were the last to defend Chapultepec against the Americans.
 This treaty ended the Mexican War and gave all of Mexico's northern land to the Americans. Nicholas Trist was the American diplomat who negotiated this war. This gave America all land from the west coast to the east coast and also gave them the gold later found in the Gold Rush.
American diplomat who negotiated the Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty ending the Mexican War. It gave all northern land to the US.
The US forced Mexico to sell more land to them so that the borders could be normalized.
Introduced by David Wilmot, this said that there would be no slavery in the newly earned Mexican territory. This was NOT used.
Vice President of Zachary Taylor who later became President. He was a lax, reclusive and didn't fix the issue of slavery but he helped a little with the Compromise of 1850
Became President in the Election of 1852. Because of his tragic life, he was reclusive and didn't face any of the slavery issues.
Compromise of 1850
These 5 laws were created to avoid a secession crisis. The Fugitive Slave Act (forced federal magistrates to return slaves) was for the South. California was a free state which solved boundary problem betw. New Mexico & Texas. It abolished the slave trade in the District of Columbia. It also organized territories into New Mexico and Utah, which were able to decide whether they wanted slavery or not.
Because of the anti-government sentiment due to slavery and other issues, this led to a period when people wanted to leave the Union.
Wife of John Adams who spoke against slavery and advocated equal rights for women in marriage. This showed how women began to speak more and express their opinions as they became more educated after the Revolution.
Judith Sargent Murray
Wrote an essay "On the Equality of the Sexes" where she argued that men and women had equal memories but women had a superior imagination. She said women were only inferior to men in reason because they were not trained. This showed how women began to speak more and express their opinions as they became more educated after the Revolution.
American Colonization Society
This group of people were strongly against slavery. They sent slaves back to Africa, but this was a fail because slaves had already adapted to being in America. This showed the growing support of abolition in America.
This was an integrated program of national economic development that was proposed by Henry Clay. This said that the Second Bank would regulate state banks and use tariff revenues to build roads and canals. This was popular among the West but disliked in the South.
This party began in 1834 to oppose Andrew Jackson. Popular among evangelical Protestants. Led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. They embraced the industry.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Unitarian minster known as the founder of transcendentalism which was a intellectual, religious movement in New England. He said that people were stuck in inherited customs & institutions and one could transcend the limits of existence and know the infinite & eternal. Encouraged self-realization, democracy, & individual freedom. Put all of his ideas in "Emerson's Essays" and spread them in lectures. He was extremely influential among people and American literature.
Inspired by Ralph Emerson, this New England man wrote many pieces of famous literature, one important one being Waldon. He advocated social nonconformity and civil disobedience against unjust laws.
Inspired by Ralph Emerson, this poet is most famous for his poem, "Leaves of Grass" which is centered around individualism and transcendentalism. He claims there is a union between the individual and democracy.
Edgar Allen Poe
Souther writer who was known for his dark, Romantic literature. Some famous pieces are "Tell Tale Heart", "Anabel Lee", "The Raven"
Inspired by Ralph Emerson, this novelist was known for the pessimistic aspect of Emerson's teachings. He warned that egoism could destroy individuals and people around them. His most famous piece was "The Scarlett Letter" which taught of how ignoring social restraints didn't give liberation but instead degradation. He was not influential.
This novelist was a critic of Emerson's teachings of transcendentalism and explored the limits of individualism. He wrote Moby Dick which taught that the quest for spiritual meaning in natures leads to death instead of transcendence. He was not influential.
Religious movement that emerged among Puritans. The founder of their church was Joseph Smith Jr who published The Book of Mormon which told of his encounters with God. Smith later developed the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. These people taught hard work, enterprise, poolygamy, etc. They were disliked and driven out to Utah and helped build up the area.
William Lloyd Garrison
He wrote the abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator. He founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society. Later also advocated women's rights, pacisfism, and the abolition of prisons.
Advocate for the improvement of public institutions. Set up charity schools, was an author, and an important public figure. Also changed the way people dealt with mental patients -> putting them in mental hospitals instead of jails.
Famous anti-slavery lecturers who debated men even thought they were looked at as subordinate.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin and emphasized the opposition of the Fugitive Slave Act & slaves in general. She also condemned degradation of slave women
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
She was one of the women, along with Lucretia MOtt, who organized the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls in 1848.
She was one of the women, along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who organized the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls in 1848
Susan B. Anthony
One of the most prominent speaker for women's rights. She organized a network of political captains who lobbied the legislature in New York. This led to New York law giving women the rights to collect and spend their own wages, own property, & they would have guardianship of their children if widowed. This laid the foundation for the women's rights movement after the Civil War.
Abolitionist who led the raid of 1859 at a federal arsenal in Virginia in hope of gaining weapons for a slave rebellion. Unsuccessful.