science vocab

97 terms by smyolz 

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consumer

organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph

herbivore

organism that obtains energy by eating only plants

carnivore

organism that obtains energy by eating animals

omnivore

organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals

detritivore

organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter

decomposer

organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter

food chain

series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

food web

network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem

trophic level

step in a food chain or food web

ecological pyramid

diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web

biomass

total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level

ecology

scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment

biosphere

all life on earth; the parts of the solid earth, hydrosphere, and atmosphere in which lviving organisms can be found

species

group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring

population

group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area

community

assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area

ecosystem

collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment

biome

group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities

autotroph

organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer

producer

organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph

photosynthesis

the process by which plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into energy-rich glucose molecules

chemosynthesis

the process by which certain microorganisms use chemical energy to produce food

heterotroph

organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer

ability to move

what is not a characteristic of all living things?

the amount of light and temperature

factors to which living things respond

an atmosphere containing oxygen gas

what was not a characteristic of earth before the oceans formed

hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide

two gases that probably existed in earth's early atmosphere are

the presence of liquid water

one necessary condition for the evolution of the first life on earth was

some became extinct, some survived in only a few airless habitats, some evolved metabolic pathways that used oxygen for respiration

what was the response of the various groups of early organisms that existed when oxygen levels rose in the atmosphere

representatives of most animal groups

the cambrian explosion resulted in the evolution of the first

by making new habitats available to them

in the past, mass extinctions encouraged the rapid evolution of surviving species

simulate lightning

in miller-urey's experiments with the origin of life forms, electric sparks were passed through a mixture of gases to

oxygen

earth's first atmosphere contained little or no

it can be tested

what makes a hypothesis scientifically useful

hypothesis

scientists state a possible explanation for how and why things happen

quantitative observation

the statement "a worm is 2 cm long" is a

inference

a logical interpretation of an observation

testable

to be useful in science, a hypothesis must be

1000mm

one meter is equal to

supernova

in this stage the outer layer of the star is ejected while the core collapses

white dwarf

the remains of a low and medium mass star

red giant

hydrogen fusion is still progressing in the star's outer shell, no fusion is taking place in the core

main sequence

90% of stars are spent in this stage, a fine balance between gravity and gas pressure

nebula

dark, cool clouds full of interstellar matter which are the birthplace of stars

black hole

these are very hot and massive. their gravity is so strong that light cannot even escape it

protostar

a large red object that is not yet hot enough to engage in nuclear fusion

neutron star

these stellar remnants of a supernova are extremely massive, dense, and spin rapidly. protons and electrons are combined

dense, hot, supermassive ball

according to the big bang theory, the entire universe began as a

within one of the spirals

according to information received from radio telescopes, where is our sun positioned in the milky way?

when a star is thought to be born

a protostar reaches a temperature high enough for nuclear fusion to begin

elliptical galaxies

about 60 percent of all known galaxies are classified as

distance

hubble's law states that galaxies are retreating form earth at a speed that is proportional to their

9.5 trillion km

approximately how long is a light year?

cosmic microwave background radiation

what is supportive evidence of the big bang theory?

main sequence

which type of star is the sun

red shift of distant galaxies

scientists know the universe is expanding because of the

white dwarf

what remains after a low-mass or medium-mass star dies?

10,000 light years thick

at its nucleus, the milky way galaxy is about 100,000 light years wide and about

run out of fuel and collapse

all stars, regardless of their size, eventually

characteristics of living things

1. made up of units called cells 2. reproduce 3. are based on a universal genetic code 3. grow and develop 5. obtain and use materials and energy 6. respond to their environment 7. taken as a group, change over time.

homeostasis

process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

hypothesis

a tentative explanation that is tested to determine if it is valid

theory

a well-tested and widely accepted view that explains certain observable facts

only 10% of energy is transferred to the next level, the other 90% is "lost" as heat

what is the 10% rule? what happens to the other 90%?

energy is "lost", whereas nutrients can be recycled

compare the movement of energy and nutrients through living systems

ecological model

diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. a pyramid promotes the most stability

99%

what percentage of all species that ever lived on earth has become extinct?

there was a lot of magma and volcanic activity. hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and water were the substances that probably made up early earth's atmosphere

what was the early earth like? atmosphere (gasses)? activity?

water

what was one necessary condition for the evolution of life?

a rapid diversification of marine life over a short amount of time. after a mass extinction, a different organism/species prospers (explodes)

what was the cambrian explosion? how does a rapid diversification of life relate to a mass extinction?

terrestrial (small and rocky): mercury, venus, earth, mars. jovian (huge gas giants): jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune

list the terrestrial planets. list the gasseous or jovian planets

white light into the color spectrum

what does a prism do?

according to the nebular theory, it formed from a rotating cloud of dust and gas

how did the solar system form?

tells whether a star is going toward or away from us

what does the use of the doppler effect tell astronomers about a star?

difference between absorption spectrum and emission spectrum. what can a star's spectrum tell astronomers about that star?

absorption: a continuous spectrum produced when white light is passed through a cool gas under low press; the gas absorbs selected wavelengths of light, and the spectrum looks like it has dark lines superimposed. emission: a series of bright lines of particular wavelengths produced by a hot gas under low pressure. tells us what it's made of what's surrounding

the distance light travels in one year; about 9.5 trillion km.

how long is a light year? what is a light year?

spiral galaxy. 100,000 l.y. wide, 10,000 l.y. thick

what is the size and structure of the milky way galaxy?

elliptical

what is the most common type of galaxy in the universe?

big bang theory

theory that proposes that the universe originate as a single mass, which subsequently exploded

evidence for big bang

cosmic microwave background radiation and the expanding universe

doppler effect

change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other

red shift

a shift in the spectra of distant galaxies toward longer wavelengths; generally interpreted as the Doppler effect resulting from the velocity at which they recede as the universe expands

evaporation

matter or the quantity of matter evaporated or passed off in vapor

condensation

the result of being made more compact or dense

precipitation

rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to the ground

glacier

large ice sheet

calve

pieces that break off glaciers into ocean, float away as icebergs, and melt

iceberg

piece of glacier that break off into ocean

percolation

the slow passage of a liquid through a filtering medium

discharge

dismiss, unload, release

transpiration

plants absorb groundwater through their roots and release it through the pores of their leaves as water vapor into the atmosphere

respiration

plants are removing co2 from the atmosphere while animals are adding it

locked up in the crust in limestone rocks

where is the largest amount of carbon

in fossil fuels, atmosphere as co2, in living and dead biological tissue, dissolved in seawater

where else is carbon

low mass

nebula-protostar-main sequence-white dwarf-black dwarf

medium mass

nebula-protostar-main sequence-red giant-planetary nebula-white dwarf-black dwarf

massive

nebula-protostar-main sequence-red super giant-supernova explosion-neutron star OR black dwarf

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