Mastering Biology Ch. 22

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Dr. Wiens Bio 101

Which of the following statements about natural selection is true?

Natural selection favors individuals that reproduce more than others.

Which term describes a trait that increases an individual's ability to survive in a particular environment?

Adaptation

Which term describes the ability of a trait to be passed on to offspring?

Heritability

Which of the following organisms could be produced by artificial selection?

A cow that produces a large quantity of milk.

Which pair of chickens should a farmer breed to produce larger chickens?

Large hen, large rooster

A farmer wishes to develop a strain of high-yield corn that is also resistant to drought. He has the following individuals from the current year's crop:

Individual A—Yield: 179 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high
Individual B—Yield: 220 bushels/acre; drought resistance: low
Individual C—Yield: 185 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium
Individual D—Yield: 140 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high
Individual E—Yield: 200 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium

Which of the following crosses would produce the highest corn yield with the highest resistance to drought?

A and E

The Galápagos Islands are cooled by the _____.

Humboldt Current

How many finch species did Darwin send to the British Museum?

13

Which of these lists contains the four postulates of natural selection?

Variation in population, heritable variation, selection, differential survival or reproduction

Which of the following statements is an accurate combination of postulates 1 and 2 of natural selection?

Heritable variation exists for traits among individuals in a population

Which of the following statements is an accurate combination of postulates 3 and 4 of natural selection?

Individuals experience differential success in their ability to survive or reproduce

Does the ability of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell to infect a new host depend on its drug-resistant phenotype?

No, drug-susceptible cells and drug-resistant cells are equally likely to infect a new host.

Which of the following statements describes the evolution by natural selection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in their new environment?

The drug-resistance trait is an adaptation to the environment in which human hosts are medicated with the antibiotic rifampin.

True or false? It would be difficult to assess whether the drug-susceptible or drug-resistant phenotype in a population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was more fit in an environment without antibiotics.

True

In the United States today, about half of the corn crop is genetically engineered with a protein that is toxic to corn borers, an insect pest of corn. Which of the following conditions would be necessary for evolution of resistance to the toxic protein to occur in the corn borer?

The corn borer must have or generate (by mutation) heritable variation in resistance to the toxic protein. The resistant corn borers must survive better or reproduce more than nonresistant corn borers.

The wing of a bat is homologous to the _____ of a whale.

flipper

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