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chief of police

executive head of police agency

deputy of chief

second highest administrator

captain

head of precinct, district, or bureau

lieutenant

head of unit, section, watch or shift

sergeant

head of a group of personnel

Internal Affairs Unit

investigating alleged misconduct by police officers in the department

New York City 1907

the first organized K-9 unit

patrol

"Backbone" of the police department as the largest and most visible unit

Directed patrol

create blocks of time to implement specialized or directed crime prevention deterrence, and apprehension activities

aggressive patrol

attempts to deter crime or problems by increasing sanctions and threats of apprehension for specific crimes

saturation patrol

attempts to deter crime or problems in a specific area by deploying large numbers of officers

Secretive rogue

focused on criminals who were commiting great number of crimes; monetary rewarded or recognition; infiltrate criminal organizations; the detectives were often involved in criminal activities

inquisitor

expected more arrests and clearing cases from detectives

bureaucrat

focus on specific crimes and to respond to individual crime victims; goal was to make sure that the criminal investigation process was correct

preliminary investigation

initial inquiry into a reported crime; crucial to sccessful solution and prosecution of a crime; patrol officers make the majority of the felony arrests

incident report

the basic facts about the crime, the crime scene, and suspects

watchman style

policing style with very low-key approach; emphasis on maintaining the peace; works well in a small community

legalistic style

policing style with More formal and stresses a full enforcement policy; Concerned with criminal law enforcement and criminal justice process; Not much discretion; Found in cities

service style

policing style with very responsive to public concerns; keeping the area safe; no proactive policing; suburban areas

extralegal violence

when an officer willfully and wrongfully uses force

unnecessary force

resort to force too quickly or needlessly

fleeing felon standard

Today, police officers may fire their weapons only in self-defense or to protect the life of another

rotten apples and rotten pockets

some individual officers commit illegal acts

pervasive unorganized corruption

significant number of officers commit illegal acts

pervasive organized corruption

officers committing illegal acts in an organized manner

complaints, use of force, reprimands, and discharge of firearms

four criteria of early warning systems:

civilian review boards

purpose: Maintain effective discipline of police, Provide satisfactory resolution of citizen complaints against officers, Maintain citizen confidence in police, Provide feedback from citizens

enactment of laws, allocation of funds, and legislative oversight

legislative branch of government can affect the exercise of discretion in 3 ways

appellate courts

govern procedural aspects of the law

criminal courts

dismiss cases or refuse to admit evidence

civil courts

issue a writ of mandamus to require or prohibit certain acts

community oriented policing

Attempted to faster better relationships between the police and the community; Foot patrol

problem oriented policing

Efforts to identify crime and disorder problems and develop police and community responses that effectively dealt with both causes and symptoms

broad police function

fear reduction and order maintencance

citizen input

police to work more closely with citizens

neighborhood variation

police follow the will of the community when dealing with situations and enforcing the law

strategic dimension

develop strategies to implement the philosophy of community policing

programmatic dimension

reoriented police operations

scanning

of the SARA model... specifically identifying the problem

analysis

of the SARA model... collect information from a variety of sources

Response

of the SARA model... identification of possible solutions by working with community

assessment

of the SARA model... implementations of a solution and a subsequent evaluation to measure the effectiveness the solution

rational choice theory

criminal weigh the likelihood of being discovered with the potential benefits of the act

routine activities theory

crime occurs when a motivated criminal converges on a suitable target when there is a lack of guardianship

automatic vehicle locator

cars equipped with devices can be tracked by police cars

first AVM program

Monterey, CA 1970's

affirmative action

recruiting and hiring minorities and females

equal employment opportunity act

extended the civil rights acts to public employers; can sue public agencies for discrimination in employment

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