What does blood consist of?
10 pints of plasma, red blood cells called erythrocytes, and white blood cells referred to as leukocytes and platelets
blood cells are classified into two groups. what are these two groups
red blood cells, white blood cells
name two differences between red and white blood cells.
1. function 2. appearance
describe the elements of blood
55% plasma, 45% erythrocytes, 1 percent leukocytes and platelets
why are erythrocytes pulled to the bottom of the tube during centrifuge
because they are denser
what is the layer between the plasma and red blood cells called?
the ratio of height of the erythrocyte column to the height of the whole blood column expressed as a percentage.
a condition in which there is an increase in the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells.
aqueous solution in which a great variety of solutes (proteins, small nutrients such as glucose, lipids & amino acids),metabolic waste products (urea & lactic acid) & electrolytes are dissolved
cells that lack nuclei, mitochondria and other organelles such as ribosomes that are necessary for manufacturing proteins
fibrous protein that forms a network linked to the plasma membrane.
the major function of erythrocytes is to transport _____ and ____ in the blood
oxygen and carbon dioxide
why do erythrocytes have a high capacity for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide?
because they contain hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase in their cytoplasm
the most abundant protein in erythorocytes.
what is the structure of hemoglobin?
4 polypeptide chains, two alpha and two beta, each has an iron containing ring structure known as a heme group
is a protein found in erythrocytes. catalyzes the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid.
what is the life span of erythrocytes?
what organ removes old erythrocytes?
where are erythrocytes produced
released from cells in the kidney in response to low oxygen levels in blood
what are the dietary requirements for erythrocytes?
iron, folic acid, vitamin b12
engulf microorganisms, abnormal cells, and foreign particles by phagocytosis
secrete enzymes that kill parasites; contribute to tissue damage in allergic reactions
secretes chemical mediators of inflammation and allergic reactions
secrete cytokines; engulf microorganisms by phagocytosis
migrate into tissues where they become big eaters
play various roles in immune system
when a blood vessel is damaged, intrinsic mechanisms trigger a constriction called __________ which increases resistance to blood flow.