What is the function of blood?
To transport gases, nutrients, waste products, processed and regulatory molecules
Blood is involved in the regulation of what?
pH, temperature, and osmosis
What is the composition of blood and what kind of tissue is blood made out of?
55% plasma and 45% formed elements
What is plasma made out of?
Mostly water (91%), contains proteins such as albumin (maintains osmotic pressure), globulins (functions in transport and immunity), fibrinogen (clot formation), and hormones/enzymes (regulation)
What do formed elements consist of?
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
White blood cells (leukocytes)
Platelets (cell fragments)
Where are formed elements produced?
Within the embryo and fetus
After birth, red bone marrow becomes the general source of production
All formed elements are derived from stem cells
What are red blood cells?
Biconcave discs containing heoglobin and carbonic anhydrase
A hemoglobin molecule consists of _____ and _____.
What do they do?
Four heme and four globin molecules.
Heme molecules transport oxygen, and the globin molecules transport carbon dioxide and nitric oxide.
Carbonic Anhydrase also transports carbon dioxide
What is erythropoiesis?
The production of red blood cells
In response to ____________, the kidneys produce ___________, which stimulates ___________.
low blood oxygen
Hemoglobin from ruptured red blood cells is phagocytized by?
What are the five types of white blood cells and what is their function?
Neutrophils (small phagocytic cells)
Eosinophils (reduce inflammation)
Basophils (release histamine and increase the inflammatory response)
Lymphocytes (production of antibodies)
Monocytes (become large phagocytic cells called macrophages)
What are platelets?
Aka thrombocytes, are cell fragments pinched off from megakaryocytes in the red blood marrow
What is hemostasis?
The stoppage of bleeding
What is the purpose of platelet plug formation?
Platelets repair minor damage to blood vessels by forming platelet plugs
What is coagulation?
The formation of a blood clot
Prothrombin is converted to ______ by _______
Blood groups are determined by ______ on the surface of ______
Red Blood Cells
Type A Blood has ____
Type B Blood has ____
Type AB Blood has ____
Type O blood has ____
A & B antigens
Type A blood has _____ antibodies
Type B blood has _____ antibodies
Type AB blood has _____ antibodies
Type O blood has _____ antibodies
Neither anti A or B
Both anti A and B
What is the difference between Rh positive and Rh negative?
Rh positive has certain Rh antigens
Rh negative does not.