group's system of economic production. In non-industrial societies, it is usually based on food production.
Agricultural Location model
An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices (von Thunen)
concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
a large-scale farming enterprise
The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors ext. Makes it a lot faster for farmers to yield crop
The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields. Effects how much yield one gets from their plants.
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.
the raising of plants or animals, such as fish or shellfish, in or at the bottom of the sea, a lake, a river, or other body of water
The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies.
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
a farm operated collectively
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
the center of an object
a boundary line; perimeter; an outside surface
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Forgiveness of international debt in exchange for nature protection in developing countries
the act of dispersing or diffusing something
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
any action that relates to the making, buying, and selling of goods and services
Primary Economic Activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment-- such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Quaternary Economic Activity
service sector industires concerned with the collection, processing, and manipuation of information and capital (finance, administration, insurance, legal services)
Quinary Economic Activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management)
Changes in the ecosystem resulting from human activities such as the use of pesticides, soil erosion, desertification.
a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)
the washing away of soil by the flow of water
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Extensive Subsistence Agriculture
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Nomadic Herding/ Pastoralism
the raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water/the raising and grazing of livestock
Industries involved in the activities of prospecting, exploring, developing, and producing for non-regenerative natural resources from the Earth
working the land as an occupation or way of life
a building where livestock are fattened for market
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
the occupation of catching fish for a living
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
the science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber
consumer driven agriculture integrated on an international scale
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
The average number of days between the last frost of spring and the first frost of fall
Hunting and Gathering
The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
In shifting cultivation spreads out production over the farming season by planting different crops in the same field
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually.
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados,
Natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources.
the excavation of the earth for the purpose of extracting ore or minerals
economy that relies on a centralized government to control all or most factors of production and to make all or most production and allocation decisions
when people cultivate or "care for" crops for agriculture
raising a large amount of a "cash crop" for local sale or export
Renewable is because their supplies will not be deplete by our use. EX: sunlight, geothermal energy and tidal energy
Non-renewable: at our current rates of consumption we will use up Earth's accessible store of these resources in a matter of decades to centuries
Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism (ecotourism).
characterized by a lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads.
a compact closely packed settlement sharply demarcated from adjoining farmland
Building Material Settlement
houses and buildings are typically built from materials that are abundant in the area.
Village Form Settlement
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand
Carl O. Sauer
defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation
Second Agricultural Revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
the special line of work you have adopted as your career
Grains that can be stored and used throughout the year
lines laid out by surveyors prior to the settlement of an area
A system of farming where lots up to a half mile or more extend back from a river, which farmers use as their primary means of hauling their agricultural products to the market.
Metes and Bounds
A method of land description which involves identifying distances and directions and makes use of both the physical boundaries and measurements of the land.
rigid grid-like pattern used to facilitate the dispersal of settlers evenly across farmlands
Highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
Third Agricultural Revolution
currently in progress, development of genetically modified organisms
the act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology
"Tragedy of the Commons"
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
the intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for processing or canning; synonyms horticultural farming, market gardening
Johann Heinrich Von Thunen
German scholar-farmer who developed the core-periphery model in the nineteenth century (economic determinism). In his model he proposed an "isolated state" that had no trade connections with the outside world; possessed only one market, located centrally in the state; and had uniform soil, climate, and level terrain throughout. He created this model to study the influence of distance from market and the concurrent transport costs on the type and intensity of agriculture.