wrote On Revolution, named certain goals that justify or even define revolution- "freedom"
Ted Robert Gurr
wrote "why men rebel" deals with psychological conditions of rebellion. outlines theory of relative deprivation
the actors' perception of the discrepency between their value expectations and value capabilities. or, when men recieve less than they expect, they will display more violent tendencies
Revolutionary Change, defines revolution as a drastic form of social change to remedy specific conditions within the social system. Revolution, according to Johnson, results from multiple dysfunctions in the economic and social order combined with elite intransigence and various kinds of accelerators, including ideology, which for him is a necessary part of revolution.
"The Functions of Social Conflict"
written by sociologist Lewis Coser, suggests that conflicts allow groups to strengthen their identity when fighting other groups, and also cause some groups to unite. Seen in Mexican revolution when agrarian workers, urban workers, miners, intellectuals, and others united to win the revolution. zapatistas and villistas united.
"Anatomy of Revolution"
written by Crane Brinton, compares revolution to a fever, identifying four stages: prodromal where early signs of unrests are seen and intellectuals are rejected, the disease when the violence occurs, the "honeymoon" and "reign of terror", and finally the period of recovery from "disease"
phases of revolution outlined by brinton. not all revolutions adhere to this formula
Max Weber ???????? ASK QUESTION IN CLASS
wrote "On Charisma and Institution Building"--deals with which shows that charisma, which would seem to be the opposite of the rationality needed for the reestablishment of order and the creation or re-creation of institutions, may under certain conditions foster such rationality.
important questions as to Obregon's power
1) how did he get into a powerful position? 2) how did he win support and legitimacy in 1920 when Carranza lost it? 3) How did he create the political organization to establish his legitimacy?
leading revolutionary figure, beaten by Huerta
"common military rebellion" lead by Felix Diaz and Manuel Mondregon in La Ciudadela
Henry Lane Wilson
US ambassador to Mexico during the overthrow of Madero
Clerk in military court of Huerta who helped Villa escape
Plan de Guadalupe
Carranza rejected the Huerta government, on March 26, 1913 called for an uprising against the usurping military dictatorship and for the restoration of constitutional government, giving the name of Constitutionalist.
Pánfilo Natera and Toribio Ortega
villista chiefs who captured Mercado after he reached Ojinaga
percent of capital invested in mexico that was foreign
returns on foreign capital in mexico
El Pais and El Tiempo
catholic mexican newspapers that expressed dissapproval of Diaz's regime
Vice Presidential candidates
Bernardo Reyes and Ramón Corral
governor of state Nuevo Leon, rose to power through military and was supported by military people. proposed education and worker's compensation for injuries. supported by Partido Independiente. when his support grew, Diaz sent him to europe, removing him from race. Corral became vice president, Reyes's supporters looked to Madero
Leon de La Barra
appointed provisional president under the Treaty signed in Ciudad Juarez after Diaz's resignation and exile to france
National Agrarian Commission
created by madero to deal with land distribution. proposed that land be bought and redistributed to campesinos, but the government didn't have much money, and landowners charged too much.,
Department of Labor
created in 1911 by Madero's government in response to increasing worker strikes. attempted to stabilize owner-worker relations by preventing strikes and improving workplace conditions.
Plan de Orozquista
Former general of Madero Pascual Orozco pronounced against Madero in 1912. plan similar to Ayala, and proposed a ten-hour workday, better wages, improved working conditions, and an end to the tienda de rayas. called for the return of illegally seized land, and accused Madero of failing to achieve his stated goals in the Plan de San Luis Potosí and of practicing nepotism
Emilio Vásquez Gómez
pronounced against Madero because Madero had abandoned his brother, Francisco Vásquez Gómez, as vice-president on the eve of the presidential elections. Lacked strong agenda, and orozco convinced him to dispel rebellion
military coup lead by General Manuel Mondragón and joined by former political prisoners Félix Díaz and Bernardo Reyes, who revolted against Madero who chose Huerta to defend him who turned on Madero and forced him and his VP to resign. coup assisted by ambassador Henry lane Wilson
Pact of the Embassy
negotiations between Felix Diaz and Huerta legitimizing coup. blamed Madero for the instability and credited Díaz and Huerta with the foresight to intervene to restore stability
General Aureliano Blanquet
placed madero under arrest in February 18, 1913
articles of new constitution that were significantly changed
Article 123, Article 27, and Article 130
epresented potential gains for the workers. The promises of Article 123 improved the workers' subservient condition within Mexican society but also protected the economic elites.
attacked the principles established under Ley Lerdo that allowed claims to be made against communally held land and was later bastardized to allow land speculators to acquire land from the rural population. The article contained a significant nationalist feature in restoring subsoil rights to the Mexican state rather than to those who owned the land.
strengthened and enforced the anti-clerical language enunciated in the 1857 constitution, but which was rarely enforced.
Plutarco Elias calles
In 1918 the minister of Industry, Commerce, and Labor and future president of Mexicocalled for a national labor union. He and other government officials had grown concerned over the expanding number of labor unions.
three ideaological groups represented at saltillo
Anarcho-Syndicalists, the Socialists, and the "Unionists,"
Luis N. Morones
spoke for the Unionist camp.
Confederación General de Trabajadores (CGT)
formed in 1921, viewed the conservative direction of the government as reason enough for a more independent and more militant workers movement.
Presidents Alvaro Obregón ( 1920-1924) and Plutarco Calles ( 1924-1928)
spy who helped kill Zapata
Plan de Agua Prieta
Led by Alvaro Obregón, and supported by Plutarco Elias Calles and Adolfo de la Huertapresented to the nation in April 1920 denouncing Carranza's intentions and demanding his immediate resignation.