Science: Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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A solid is a state of matter that has a ________.

definite volume and a definite shape.

The resistance of a liquid to flowing is its________

viscosity

Particles of a liquid are _____________________.

free to move in a container but remain in close contact with one another.

In which state of matter do the particles spread apart and fill all the space available to them?

gas

The force of a gas's outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container iis the gas's ___________.

pressure

The greater the speed of gas particles in a container, the _______________________.

greater the pressure

When an inflated balloon is exposed to cold air, _____________.

the volume of the balloon decreases.

During the process of sublimation, _____________.

a solid turns directly into a gas.

The surface of water can act like a sort of skin due to a property of liquids called _______________.

surface tension

The change from liquid to solid, or the reverse of melting, is called _________________-.

freezing

The freezing point of water is the same as its ____________.

melting point

What is vaporization?

a liquid becoming a gas

An uncovered pot of soup is simmering on a stove, and there are water droplets on the wall above the back of the stove. What sequence can you infer has occurred?

vaporization, then condensation

The boiling point of a substance is affected by _____________.

the pressure of the air above the substance.

The opposite of vaporization is called _______________.

condensation

Data plotted on a graph results in a line that slopes upward from left to right. This graph tells you that __________________________.

when one variable increases, the other variable increases

In cold climates, the amount of snow on the ground may decrease even if the temperature stays below zero degrees Celsius. The process that best explains this event is ___________________.

sublimation

When the temperature of a gas at constant volume increases, its ____________________.

pressure increases

A fluid is _________________.

a substance that flows

The amount of space that a gas takes up is its _____________.

volume

In which state of matter are particles packed tightly together in fixed positions?

solid

Which state of matter undergoes changes in volume most easily?

gas

The state of matter in which particles are arranged in either a crystalline or an amorphous form is ___________________.

solid

The energy of matter in motion is called_________________.

kinetic energy

Table sugar and table salt are examples of _________________.

pure substances

Which of these statements is false?
a. oxygen and copper are examples of elements
b. elements are pure substances
c. atoms of different elements can combine to form compounds.
d. atoms of different elements are the same.

d. Atoms of different elements are the same.

According to Boyle's law, when the pressure of a gas increases at constant temperature, its volume ________________.

decreases

According to Charles' law, when the temperature of a gas increases at constant pressure, its ______________.

volume increases

When the temperature of a gas decreases at constant volume, its ______________.

pressure decreases

A graph of Charles' law shows the relationship between ___________________.

temperature and volume of a gas

A graph that shows that the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume under constant temperature demonstrates _________________.

Boyle's Law

A graph that shows that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature under constant pressure demonstrates______________.

Charles' Law

A graph of Boyle's Law shows the relationship between __________________.

volume and pressure of a gas.

T or F: A liquid does not have a definite shape, but it does have a definite volume.

True

T or F: Particles in a liquid move around just as freely as particles in a solid.

False, more freely than

T or F: In a rigid container, as the temperature of gas decreases, the pressure of gas will decrease.

True

T or F: The type of graph tht results when the volume of a gas is measured as its pressure is changed (at constant temperature) is a straight line.

False, curved line

T or F: Pieces of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) become smaller through the process of condensation.

False, sublimation

T or F: At its boiling temperature, the particles of a liquid are moving so slowly that they begin to form regular patterns.

False, freezing temperature

T or F: In crystalline solids, the particles are not arranged in a regular pattern.

False, amorphous solids

The resistance of a liquid to flowing is called __________.

viscosity

Salt, sugar, and snow are examples of _________ solids.

crystalline

When a graph of two variables shows a straight line passing through the point (0,0) the two variables are __________ proportional to each other.

directly

A shrinking puddle is an example of __________, or vaporization that takes place only on the surface of a liquid.

evaporation

When a substance cools, it loses ______ energy to its surroundings.

thermal

Solids that have particles arranged in a regular, repeating pattern are know as ______________ solids.

crystalline

In a ___________, the particles are packed closely together, but they can move past each other freely.

liquid

Sublimation is the change of a solid directly into a _____________.

gas

______________ occurs when particles in a gas lose enoug thermal energy to form a liquid.

Condensation

______________ is a measure of the average energy of motion of the particlesof a substance.

Temperature

When the temperature of a gas in a balloon increases, the volume of the balloon will ____________.

increase

The graph of Boyle's law shows that as the volume of a gas at constant temperature is changed, its pressure varies ______________ with the volume.

inversely

See diagram: In which state are the particles least able to move? Explain.

State B becasue the particles are connected together.

See diagram: Which of the three states represents a liquid? How do you know?

State A because the particles are able to move around but are still held together a little bit.

See diagram: Which of the three states would you expect to be most affected by the shape of its container? Explain.

State C because gases have no definite shape so it takes the shape of the container.

See diagram: Classify each of the three states as gas, liquid, or solid.

State B- liquid
State A- solid
State C- Gas

See Diagram: If State A is heated, which of the othe two states would it more closely resemble? Explain.

State C, becasue the particles are not connected together so they will spread apart a lot like a gas.

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