small landowning farmers, occasionally had one or two slaves to help around the south
of or pertaining to or in keeping with the Christian gospel especially as in the first 4 books of the New Testament
A name given to southerners that grew cotton and were involved in the cotton industry
They were a party that were Anti-Catholic and Anti-Immigrants( German and Irish)
It was a "God Given Right" to move the west, this was the cause of westward expansion
The 1836 rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico.
1846-1848 Mexico and Americans were at a disagreement about Texas Territory.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Ended The Mexican American war and mexico had to agree that the rio grande was the border line of texas.
territory received from the mexican american war, will be slave free or banned slavery
the policy of perpetuating native cultures (in opposition to acculturation)
is the transformation of a society from with religious values and institutions toward non-religious values and secular institutions.
a political candidate who is not well known but could win unexpectedly
a statement that makes a condition, qualification, or restriction
California Gold Rush
1849 when gold was discovered in san francisco many people migrated to look for it
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Uncle Tom's Cabin
a book published by harriet beecher stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral
Battle of Gettysburg
an 1863 Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended a Confederate invasion of the North
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Clement Vallandigham & the copperheads
the most prominent Peace Democrat from Ohio, leader of the Copperheads, who was seized by military authorities and exiled to the Confederacy after he made a speech claiming that the purpose of the war was to free blacks, but enslave whites.
forced military service
rule by the army instead of the elected government
New York City Draft Riots
July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
United States Sanitation Commission
a private relief agency created by federal legislation on June 18, 1861, to support sick and wounded soldiers of the U.S. Army during the Civil War. It operated across the North, raised its own funds, and enlisted thousands of volunteers, especially women
This was Lincoln's reconstruction plan for after the Civil War. Written in 1863, it proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation, and then formally erect their state governments. This plan was very lenient to the South, would have meant an easy reconstruction.
Wade - Davis Bill
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
(1865) abolished slavery
(1865) a U.S goverment-sponsored agency that provided food, established schools, and tried to redistribute land to former slaves as part of Radical Reconstruction; it was most effective in education, where it created over 4,000 schools in the South
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after; favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
(1868) Declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels: 1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
Reconstruction Act of 1867
vetoed by Johnson but overridden by Congress: a.) put the South under military rule b.)Ordered states to hold new elections for deleagates to creat new state constitutions c.) Required all states to allow all qualified male voters to vote in elections d.) Barred those who supported the Confederacy from voting. e.) Required southern states to approve new constitutions and set up a five districts led by Union generals to keep the peace
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
African Americans who had been set free from slavery
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
purchase of land from mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Dred Scott v Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
John Brown & Harpers Ferry
Scheme was to invade the South secretly with a handful of followers, call upon the slaves to rise, give the slaves weapons, and establish a black free state as a sanctuary. Because many of his supporters failed to show up, he was caught and sent to death by hanging. Known as 'martyr' for the abolitionist cause. 1859
a person who is loyal to their allegiance (especially in times of revolt)
A single document that is accepted in a single vote by a legislature but contains amendments to a number of other laws or even many entirely new laws.
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
was an unsuccessful proposal introduced by Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden on December 18, 1860. It aimed to resolve the U.S. secession crisis of 1860-1861 by addressing the grievances that led the slave states of the United States to contemplate secession from the United States.
Confederate States of America
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
The Anaconda Plan
Final Northern plan to end the War by Capturing Richmond, Blockading Southern ports and splitting the South by taking the Mississippi River
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
southern whites who supported republican policy throughout reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep african americans from obtaining their civil rights
Made to stop the violence in the South. the first act was a federal crime to interfere with a persons right to vote. & 2nd made elections under the watch of federal marshals. the 3rd outlawed the activites of the Klan
Grants way of dealing with the presidency, which disillusioned many Northern Republicans, included his continuing support of Radical Reconstruction policies, and the corruption within the Grant administration itself.
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
A series of post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the first judicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. The Court held that these amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights of freed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights of other citizens against deprivations of due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
the right to vote
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
a general pardon for an offense against a government; in general, any act of forgiveness or absolution
the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative
all of the people entitled to vote in a given election
Writ of Habeas Corpus
a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches