earth science words ch6

29 terms by frommelts

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stress

A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.

tension

the action of stretching something tight

compression

stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks

shearing

Stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement.

normal fault

an inclined fault in which the hanging wall appears to have slipped downward relative to the footwall

hanging wall

the upper wall of an inclined fault

foot wall

The block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault

reverse fault

a geological fault in which the upper side appears to have been pushed upward by compression

strike-slip fault

a type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motion

anticline

a fold in rock that bends upward into an arch

syncline

a fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley

plateau

a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level

earthquake

the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface

focus

The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake

epicenter

the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

P waves

A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground

S waves

A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side

surface waves

are the slowest and largest of the seismic waves and cause most of the destruction during an earthquake

mercalli scale

a scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place

magnitude

The measurement of an Earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults.

richter scale

a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves

seismograph

an instrument that records earthquake waves

moment magnitude scale

a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake

seismogram

the record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph

friction

the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface

liquefaction

The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud

aftershock

an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area

tsunami

a giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor

base-isolated building

A building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake.

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