Biology 2011 Final

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ATP

adenosine triphosphate
stores energy/fully charged

ADP

Adenosine Diphosphate
stores energy/not fully charged

Biotic Factors

living parts of an ecosystem

Abiotic Factors

nonliving parts of an ecosystem

Habitat

the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs

Nitrogen

N2O-turns into nitrite

Nitrite

NO2−turn into nitrate

Nitrate

NO3-turn into ammonia

Ammonia

NH3- yay ammnia

Ammonium

NH4+

Orders of Biology Study

individual, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere

Methods of Biology Study

observation, experimentation, modelling

Where does an environment's energy come from?

Sol

What is the energy flow of living systems?

From one trophic level to another; consumption

What is the efficiency of energy transfer?

10%

Autotroph

An organism that produces its own food

Producer

An organism that introduces energy to the environment

Photosynthesis

The process plants use to derive nutrients from sunlight

Heterotroph

An organism that feeds on other organisms; a consumer

Consumer

An organism that depends on others for energy

Herbivore

A consumer that eats plants

Carnivore

A consumer that eats other consumers

Omnivore

A consumer that eats both plants and other consumers

Detritivore

A consumer that eats dead matter

Decomposer

A consumer that returns nutrients from dead matter to the earth

Food chain

A direct line from one organism to another, showing energy flow

Food web

An intertwined mesh of food chains, illustrating a more complete set of interactions from an ecosystem

Trophic Level

A level of energy passage in a food chain/web/pyramid. Each successive unit contains 1/10 the energy of the previous

Ecological pyramid

A pyramid illustrating the shrinking amount of energy with each trophic level

Biomass

The mass of living organisms in an area

Biotic factor

A living component of an ecosystem that affects its state

Abiotic factor

A nonliving component of an ecosystem that affects its state

Nitrogen fixation

Caused by lightning strikes and anaerobic bacteria; converts nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3)

Nitrification

Bacteria process ammonia (NH2) into nitrites (NO2-) and nitrates (NO3-)

Assimilation

Nitrites (NO2-), nitrates(NO3-), ammonium (NH4-) and ammonia (NH3-) are all absorbed by plants to make proteins, DNA, and RNA

Ammonification

The decomposition of waste or dead matter releases nitrogen (N2) into the soil, where decomposers convert it to ammonia (NH3-)

Denitrification

Different bacteria convert nitrate (NO3-) into nitrogen gas (N2)

DNA

A nucleic acid that contains the codes to build life, formed by plants from assimilation

RNA

Another, simpler, nucleic acid

Protein

Biological compounds built with nitrogen

Habitat

The area in which a specific organism lives

Niche

The role a specific organism occupies--i.e. its food, its habitat, its water source, etc.

Competitive Exclusion Principle

If there are similarities between two organisms' niches, competition will arise, forcing one into either extinction, or evolution into a different niche

Predation

When one organism captures and feeds on another

Symbiosis

When two organisms cooperate in a manner that benefits at least one

Commensalism

Symbiosis where one organism benefits with no difference to the other

Mutualism

Symbiosis where both participants benefit

Parasitism

Symbiosis where one participant benefits, to the detriment of the other

Carrying Capacity

largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support

Predator

any animal that lives by preying on other animals

Prey

animal hunted or caught for food

human population growth

Growing almost exponentially for centuries and birth rate is higher than death rate in most countries

Benefits of Compost

Can be reused as soil does not go into land fills

benefits of recycling

Reuses products do not have to wast energy making new products

Birds from HHP

western gull
clapper rail
black oyster catcher

Invasive species

plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native

benefits of wetlands

provide food and protective habitats for many aquatic animals, protect coastlines from erosion, and reduce damage from hurricanes

Naval ship yard history

one of the biggest shipyard in west coast (navy); using a lot of toxins for atomic bombs in 2nd world war → discovered toxins and pesticides in water → SUPER FUND CLEAN UP BY GOV'T

power plant HHP

Oldest and dirtiest
Community action that made it stop

Limiting factor

factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease

What characteristics do all living this have?

Cellular based, reproduction, evolution, adapt to environment, grow and develop, use process energy, metabolism, utilize water, DNA RNA

Sugar test:

most simple sugar:Glucose
the one with least amount of sugar: sucrose

Starch test:

Potatoes have more starch the onion

What issues in CA

2% of water is usable the rest is frozen or salty
desalination is $$$ not practica
CA: droughts not enough rain
FARMERS: 50%
DOMESTIC: 25%
RIVERS/ECOSYSTEM: 25%
have to share water

What parts of USA get most rain?

USA: SE (Florida/Alabama)

Where in CA do we get the most rain?

Winter and spring

When we do our best to conserve water how are we helping other people and the natural ecosystem?

water budgeting because when the city gets less water the environment gets more water

What is the concern about water?

we don't have enough fresh water, most is in oceans, polluted or frozen

What natural and human induced actions release excess Carbon into the atmosphere?

Burning coal, cutting down trees

Where can you find carbon on earth?

everywhere

What biological molecules are made form carbon?

carbohydrate lipids amino acids muclaic acids

What are some properties of carbon?

four bonding places, most common element, wants to bond with 2 oxygen, not commonly found alone

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