ch11-17

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. Who discovered that DNA was the genetic material or transforming factor that could convert nonvirulent R-type Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium to the virulent S-type

griffith

Which of the following scientist-discoveries is mismatched?
A. Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin-DNA structure
B. Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty-DNA is the genetic material
C. Meselson and Stahl-mechanism of DNA replication
D. Griffith-chromosomes
E. Hershey and Chase-DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophage

griffith-chromosomes

Beginning with the simplest level of structure, which order of organization of genetic material is CORRECT?

nucleotide, DNA, gene, chromosome, genome

. Which of the following is FALSE when comparing RNA and DNA?
A. Both are produced by phosphodiester linkages.
B. Both are composed of phosphate groups.
C. Both are composed of sugars.
D. Both are composed of identical nucleotides.
E. Both are composed of a phosphate group, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base

d

In producing a strand of DNA the nucleotides combine to form what type of bond?

C. phosphodiester

The mechanism of DNA replication is

semiconcervative

During DNA replication, all of the following proteins are important for separating the DNA strands and allowing movement of the replication fork EXCEPT
A. DNA polymerase.
B. helicase.
C. topoisomerase.

. DNA polymerase

. Which of the following proteins-functions is mismatched?
A. DNA polymerase-DNA synthesis
B. DNA polymerase-primer removal and replacement with DNA
C. DNA primase-production of RNA primer
D. topoisomerase-separates double-stranded DNA into single strands

topoisomerase-separates double-stranded DNA into single strands

12. ________ attaches DNA sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.

C. Telomerase

. The processes of transcription and translation are collectively known as
A. RNA processing.
B. gene duplication.
C. protein synthesis.
D. DNA synthesis.
E. gene expression

RNA processing

. The processes of transcription and translation are collectively known as
B. gene duplication.
C. protein synthesis.
D. DNA synthesis.
E. gene expression

E. gene expression

Bread mold can grow in a minimal medium without supplements (wild type) while certain mutated strains (mutants) can only grow in a minimal medium that is supplemented with specific intermediates found in the following metabolic pathway for arginine synthesis:
minimal ------> ornithine -------> citrulline ------> arginine, where enzyme 1 converts the precursor to ornithine, enzyme 2 converts ornithine to citrulline, and enzyme 3 converts citrulline to arginine.
Which of the following would be TRUE of a strain that can grow in minimal medium containing ornithine, citrulline, or arginine, but not in minimal medium alone?
A. The strain would have a mutation in the gene that encodes enzyme 1.
B. The strain would have a mutation in the gene that encodes enzyme 2.
C. The strain would have a mutation in the gene that encodes enzyme 3.
D. The strain would have a mutation in the gene that encodes for enzymes 1, 2, and 3.
E. The strain would be the wild type with no genetic mutations.

C. The strain would have a mutation in the gene that encodes enzyme 3.

Transcription begins near a site in the DNA called the ________, while the terminator specifies the end of transcription.
A. promoter
B. enhancer
C. response element
D. transcription unit
E. regulatory sequence

promoter

. Which protein influences the ability of RNA polymerase to transcribe genes?
A. DNA polymerases
B. DNA helicases
C. transcription factors
D. snRNPs
E. tRNA

transcription factors

. Which of the following would occur if a cell's splicesomes were mutated so they no longer functioned normally?
A. Introns would remain in the mature mRNA.
B. Exons would be missing in the mature mRNA.
C. Transcription would cease.
D. A functional protein would still be produced.
E. RNA processing would remain intact

A. Introns would remain in the mature mRNA.

________ enables a single gene to encode two or more polypeptides that are different in their amino acid sequence.
A. Reverse transcription
B. Self-splicing
C. Capping
D. Alternative splicing
E. Regulatory splicing

alternative splicing

. What is the function of the poly A tail?
A. The poly A tail is required for the proper exit of mRNA from the nucleus.
B. The poly A tail allows mRNA to bind to the ribosome.
C. The poly A tail increases mRNA stability in eukaryotes.
D. The poly A tail increases mRNA stability in prokaryotes.
E. The poly A tail serves as a termination sequence for RNA polymerase III.

. The poly A tail increases mRNA stability in eukaryotes

Which sequence of events is most CORRECT for the initiation and elongation steps of translation?
(1) initiator tRNA binds start codon on mRNA
(2) small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA
(3) large ribosomal subunit binds
(4) tRNA entry and peptidyl transfer reaction
(5) translocation of ribosome and release of tRNA
A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
B. 1, 2, 3, 5, 4
C. 1, 3, 2, 4, 5
D. 2, 3, 1, 5, 4
E. 2, 1, 3, 4, 5

2,1,3,4,5

Some genes such as that for -actin are expressed at relatively constant levels in tissues regardless of variations in the animal's condition. What do we call this type of gene?
A. transposable element
B. steady state gene
C. constitutive gene
D. recombinant gene
E. multifunctional gene

constitutive gene

Which of the following could alter the level of expression of a gene?
A. an increase in environmental temperature
B. an increase in salinity
C. exposure to UV radiation
D. presence of a particular energy substrate
E. All of the choices are correct.

al of these

Which of the following are points of control for gene expression in eukaryotes?
A. RNA processing
B. translation
C. transcription
D. post-translational
E. All of the choices are correct.?? because it should be translation and transcription..

all of these

Which of the following occurs when allolactose levels increase in E. coli?
A. Transcription of genes within the lac operon increases.
B. Transcription of genes within the lac operon decreases.
C. Transcription of genes within the lac operon does not change.
D. E. coli cells replicate rapidly.
E. The tryptophan operon becomes more active

a

. Which of the following is a FALSE statement about the difference in gene regulation between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
A. Eukaryotic genes are usually organized individually, while prokaryotic genes are grouped for common functions.
B. Eukaryotic genes are regulated by small effector molecules whereas prokaryotic genes are not.
C. Eukaryotic gene regulation is more intricate than prokaryotic gene regulation.
D. Eukaryotic genes are arranged into operons, while prokaryotic genes are not.
E. Eukaryotic gene regulation tends to require more coordination and integration than prokaryotic gene regulation.

Eukaryotic genes are arranged into operons, while prokaryotic genes are not.

You are breeding different varieties of roses in your garden. When you cross a true-breeding yellow "Texas Beauty" rose with a true-breeding "Ruby" red rose, you get all red roses. But when you cross a "Texas Beauty" yellow with the yellow variety "Jealousy," you get a 9:7 ratio of red to yellow flowers! What can you conclude from these results?
A. The environment, and not genes, influences pigment in these rose varieties.
B. There are epistatic interactions between at least two genes for rose pigment.
C. The red allele is dominant to the yellow allele.
D. There is a mutation in the gene for yellow pigment in the "Jealosy" variety.
E. There is no recessive allele for the red pigment gene

D

Which of the following statements correctly describes a quantitative trait?
A. People who are homozygous for the group of genes associated with skin pigment have either lighter or darker skin than those who are heterozygous for those genes.??
B. The alleles of the gene for red hair color is masked by the gene for brown hair color.
C. A person heterozygous for dwarfism will always have the dwarf phenotype.
D. A woman who has one allele for color blindness will not be color blind, but a man who has one allele for color blindness will be color blind.??
E. 25% of the offspring from a cross of two fruit flies that are heterozygous for curly wings will have curly wings.

D

. If a testcross for two different traits produces more nonrecombinant than recombinant offspring, then the alleles for the two traits
A. are dominant.
B. are on the same chromosome.
C. are on different chromosomes.
D. are epistatic.
E. are both dominant and on the same chromosome

are dominant

4. Epigenetic inheritance
A. only refers to autosomal genes.
B. only effects female offspring.
C. only effects male offspring.
D. can result in the expression of different alleles in different generations.
E. only refers to X inactivation.

B. only effects female offspring.

The inheritance pattern where two or more genes do not assort independently because they are close together on the same chromosome is called
A. Mendelian inheritance.
B. epistasis.
C. genomic imprinting.
D. linkage.
dominance.

linkage

The inheritance pattern in which the mother provides gene products to the developing egg cells is called
A. X inactivation.
B. extranuclear inheritance.
C. genomic imprinting.
D. linkage.
E. maternal effects.

maternal effects

Quantitative traits
A. are polygenic.
B. encode genes for continuous traits.
C. are influenced by the environment.
D. are both polygenic and influenced by the environment.
E. are correctly described by all of these statements.

D

In the sweet pea crossing experiment by Bateson and Punnet, the F2 generation had many more offspring with the phenotypes of purple flowers P, long pollen L and red flowers p, round pollen l than expected from independent assortment. This is because
A. in sweet peas, there are always more PL gametes than Pl ones.
B. in sweet peas, the alleles for flower color and pollen shape are on the same chromosome.
C. there were few recombination events between these genes during meiosis.
D. flower color and pollen shape are within the same linkage group.
E. All of the statements given are true

D

In plants, most chloroplasts are inherited from the maternal plant because maternal gametes contribute the most __________ to the zygote.
A. cytoplasm
B. mitochondria
C. ribosomes
D. chlorophyll
E. cytoplasm and mitochondria

cytoplasm

A modification of a gene or chromosome that occurs during gamete formation or early development which permanently alters the expression of that gene for the lifetime of the individual is called
A. paternal inheritance.
B. epigenetic inheritance.
C. allosteric inheritance.
D. extranuclear inheritance.
E. sex-linked inheritance.

B. epigenetic inheritance

. Which of the following is NOT a type of epigenetic inheritance?
A. maternal effect
B. X inactivation
C. imprinting
D. extranuclear inheritance
E. neither maternal effect nor extranuclear inheritance

neither maternal effect nor extranuclear inheritance

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