Anatomy 2 Final

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The alimentary canal extends, in its entirety, from

D. the mouth to the anus

The digestive system

A. ingests food, propels food, mechanically and chemically breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and defecates the remainder

The correct sequence for the layers in the walls of the alimentary canal from innermost to outermost is the

B. mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, serosa

The _____ is the layer of the alimentary canal that absorbs nutrients.

A. mucosa

Peristalsis occurs in the digestive tract

A. from the pharynx to the anus

The teeth that are best adapted for biting off hunks of food are the

A. incisors

The root canal of a tooth contains

D. blood vessels and nerves

The mechanical breakup of food particles in the mouth is called

A. mastication

The ulva is

E. a flap of tissue that keeps food from entering the respiratory system

Because of their location, swollen palatine tonsils may interfere with

C. both breathing and swallowing

Salivary amylase digests

A. carbohydrates

The parotid glands are

A. the largest salivary glands

The epiglottis is attached to the

D. larynx

Heartburn is usually caused by the effects of gastric juice on the

B. esophagus

The main part of the stomach is called the

A. fundus

The parietal cells gastric glands secrete

C. hydrochloric acid

All of the enzymes that digest protein are

A. secreted by the pancreas

Gastrin, which stomach cells secrete

B. increases secretion by the gastric glands

Secretion of cholecystokinin from the intestinal wall is stimulated by

D. protein and fat in the small intestine

The hormones secretin

C. stimulates release of pancreatic juice

The bile ducts of the liver unite to form the

B. hepatic ducts.

which of the following is the correct sequence for the digestion of lipids?

B. [2] emulsification by bile [4] hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase [3] dissolved in the epithelial cell membrane [1] formation of chylomicrons [5] diffusion into lacteal ducts

One of the major functions of the large intestine is to

B. absorb ingested water

Enlarged blood vessels of the anal columns is called

B. hemorrhoids

_______ is a protein-splitting enzyme in pancreatic juice.

A. trypsin

A cute pancreatitis is often caused by the conversion of

A. trypsin to trypsinogen

Pancreatic digestive secretions are regulated by

C.cholecystokinin

Hepatitis B can be transmitted by means of

E. all of the above

Which constituent of bile has a digestive function?

C. cholesterol

Which of the following are major functions of the liver?

E. all of the above

The cells that result from meiosis are diploid

false

chromosomes align down the center of a cell undergoing meiosis in metaphase

true

the secretions of the prostate gland neutralize the acid in semen

true

each epididymis emerges from the bottom of a testis

true

The ductus deferentia are muscular tubes about 25 centimeters long

false

Capacitation makes sperm tails whip more quickly.

false

The amount of testosterone produced is regulated by a positive feedback system.

false

Gonadotropins include FSH and LH

true

In females, egg cell production begins before birth.

true

Ciliary action aids movement of an egg through a uterine tube.

true

FSH stimulates a primordial follicle to start maturing

true

An increase in the level of FSH at approximately day 14 causes ovulation

false

Endometriosis can result in the formation of fibrous tissue around the ovaries and can prevent ovulation or obstruct the uterine tubes.

true

The structure the sperm enters upon exiting the ductus deferens is the

E. seminiferous tubules

The interstital cells of the testes produce

androgens

the tubular part of the uterus that extends downward into the upper vagina is the

B. cervix

The egg, or ovum, is more correctly called

B. a secondary oocyte

A pap smear is used to detect abnormal cells in the

C. cervix

The zona pellucida consists of

A. glycoprotein

The dimensions of a uterine tube are

D. 0.7 centimeters in a diameter and about 10 centimeters long

Fertalization normally occurs in the

B. uterine tube

Which of the following terms is/ are correctly defined?

E. all of the above

The inner mucosal layer of the uterine wall is the

A. endometrium

The first step in oogenesis is a

B. primary oocyte divides to form a polar body and an egg cell

The female structure that corresponds to the male penis is the

B. clitoris

In females, which structure is immediately anterior to the vagina?

D. symphysis pubis

Menopause is due to the aging of the

A. ovaries

The hormone mainly responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteristics is

A. estrogen

About the time of ovulation, the anterior pituitary gland releases a surge of

C. LH

In the menstrual cycle, estrogen _______, whereas progesterone ________.

C. stimulates uterine wall development; stimulates the uterine lining to become more glandular

A mammary gland contains ______ lobes.

D. 15 to 20

The glands in a lobe of a breast

A. drain into alveolar ducts, which drain into a lactiferous duct that leads to the nipple

Stertility may result from uncorrected ___________, or undescended testes.

cryptorchidism

Spermatozoa are produced in minute ducts called ___________ ____________

seminiferous tubules

Testosterone is secreted by __________ cells of the testes.

interstitual

The ________ ___________ is a countercurrent heat exchanger that keeps the testis cool.

pampiniform plexus

Until ejaculation, most sperm are stored in the ________.

epididymis

About 30% of the semen is produced the _______, a medial gland that encloses part of the urethra.

prostate

The blood-testis barrier is formed by tight junctions between the ________ cells of the testis.

sustentacular

Erection results largely from vasocongestion of the two _______ _______ on the dorsal side of the penis.

corpa cavernosus

A sperm penetrates an egg by means of enzymes from its ___________.

acrosome

The first haploid cell produced in sprematogenesis is the _______ __________

secondary spermatocyte

Embryonic precursor of the male reproductive tract

K. mesonephric duct

Has receptors on the embryonic gonad if the gonad has a Y chromosome

C. HCG

Inability to produce this would result in impotence

A. nitric oxide

A male secondary sex characteristics

B. beard

Cord that guides the descending testes into the fetal scrotum

T. gubernaculums

Muscle that elevates or lowers the scrotum

O. cremaster

Must be present if testosterone is to have any effect on the testes

H. FSH duct

Minute blood sinuses in the erectile tissues of the penis

I. lacunae

Inhibin selectively suppresses its secretion

H. FSH duct

The release of an egg from the ovary is called ________.

ovulation

The constricted part of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina is called the ____________.

cervix

Attachment of the conceptus to the uterine walled is called _______________.

implantation

_____________ is a hormone secreted by the ovary that selectively suppresses FSH secretion.

progesterone

A developing egg is ovulated, and may be fertilized, at the ________ _______ stage of oogenesis.

secondary oocyte

Follicles and oocytes develop during a portion of the ovarian cycle called the __________ phase.

follicular

An ovarian follicle is considered a secondary follicle when it develops a cavity called the _________.

antrum

In the luteal phase, the ovaries secrete mainly ________, which stimulates glycogen synthesis and mucus secretion in the uterus.

inhibin

Hyperemesis gravidarum is a state of severe _______ early in pregnancy.

vomiting

Parturition is the process of _________ _________.

giving birth.

Target cells for oxytocin

D. myoepithelial cells

Degeneration of ovarian follicles that never ovulate.

R. atresia

Binds the ovary to the broad ligament

I. mesovarium

Suppressed by both inhibin and dopamine

B. anterior pituitary

Partially composes the menstrual fluid

E. endometrium

Vaginal spaces that surround the cervix

U. fornices

Site of fertilization

L. uterine tube

Source of prolactin and luteinizing hormones

B. anterior pituitary

Childbirth

O. parturition

Mammary secretion that precedes milk

Y. colostrums

Primary spermatocytes are haploid.

true

Impotence means the inability to fertilize an egg due to a low sperm count or defective sperm.

true

The acidity of the vagina would be harmful to sperm if it were not neutralized by the semen

true

Spermatogenesis requires a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature.

true

The testes and ovaries are collectively called the gametes.

false

During erection, the corpora cavernosa become more vasocongested than the corpus spongiosum.

true

Since ejaculation is an involuntary reflex, it does not involve any skeletal (voluntary) muscles.

true

The male scrotum is homologous to the female labia majora.

true

If two chromosomes are homologous, they came from the same parent.

false

The nerves that carry sensations from the male genitals constitute the pampiniform plexus.

false

Testosterone has no effect on spermatogenesis unless follicle-stimulating hormone is present.

true

Sperm heads are embedded in the sustentacular cells until the spermatozoa are mature.

true

Spermine is a sugar that provides energy for sperm motility.

false

The tunica albuginea of the male is homologous to the tunica vaginalis of the female.

true

The blood-testis barrier keeps blood from getting to the testes.

false

Only the female embryonic gonad has receptors for HCG

false

Most of a female's eggs degenerate before she is born.

true

Prolactin is not secreted until after a woman gives birth.

false

Cow's milk does not contain enough protein for adequate infant nutrition.

false

Colostrum has less protein than cow's milk.

false

The serosa of the uterus is called the perimetrium.

true

Milk flows into a single large lactiferous duct immediately behind the nipple.

false

An adolescent girl's growth of axillary hair and apocrine glands is stimulated by androgens.

true

Most girls do not ovulate during the first year of menstruation.

true

The luteal phase is a period of rapid mitosis in the endometrium.

true

The reproductive tract of a female fetus differentiates under the influence of estrogen

false

There are no mucous glands in the vagina.

false

Estrogen is a risk factor that increases the incidence of certain types of breast cancer.

true

A woman's blood cholesterol level tends to rise after menopause

true

Estrogen causes granulosa cells of a follicle to be more sensitive to FSH.

true

Most girls ovulate during the first year of menstruation.

false

The testes originate from tissues posterior to the parietal pleural

false

The germinal epithelial cells that line the seminiferous tubules produce sperm.

true

The primary organs of the female reproductive system are the uterus and vagina

false

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