SHS 300 Anatomy of Tongue (Study Notes)

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For final exam. Based on the study notes for "Anatomy of Tongue"

The tongue body is split in half by the ______ ______ ______, which originates at the hyoid and extends to the tongue tip.

median fibrous septum

The superior surface of the tongue is called _______.

dorsum

The inferior surface of the tongue is called _______.

ventral

Dorsal surface:
Tongue surface divided in half by _____ ______

median sulcus

Dorsal surface:
The tongue terminates in a pit / depression called the _______ ________.

foramen cecum

Dorsal surface:
The _______ _______ arises on both sides of the foramen cecum.

terminal sulcus

Dorsal surface:
The mucous membrane consists of a deep layer called _______ (a dense, elastic connective tissue that forms part of a "skeleton" for the tongue).

corium

The anterior dorsal surface is covered by _____ ________.

lingual papillae

Name the 4 types of lingual papillae.

vallate (circumvallate), fungiform, filliform, simple

Which type of lingual papillae is described below?:
- ~10 just anterior to terminal sulcus
- Largest papillae that contain taste buds at their periphery

vallate (circumvallate)

Which type of lingual papillae is described below?:
- Found at sides and tip
- Covered in secondary papillae with liberal distribution of taste buds

fungiform

Which type of lingual papillae is described below?:
- Most common type
- Form lines or rows that parallel the vallate papillae

filliform

Which type of lingual papillae is described below?:
- Cover the entire membranous surface as well as the surface of other papillae
- Smallest structures

simple

The anterior tongue is covered in _____ ______ that are located in the papillae.

taste buds

Taste receptors are ____________.

chemoreceptors

Taste anatomy:
Some distribution of sweet receptors towards the _____; bitter towards the _______
BUT actually distributed across tongue.

front, back

Which 3 cranial nerves convey taste information?

VII, IX, X

Which cranial nerve conveys taste information from the anterior tongue and palate? CN ____.

VII (facial)

Which cranial nerve conveys taste information from the posterior tongue? CN ____.

IX (glossopharyngeal)

Which cranial nerve conveys taste information from the epiglottis taste buds? CN ___.

X (vagus)

The "posterior surface" of the tongue corresponds to the ______ _____ of the tongue, or the ________ tongue.

posterior 1/3, pharyngeal

The posterior surface of the tongue is ________ in appearance than the anterior surface.

smoother

The sensory innervation of the posterior surface of the tongue comes from CN ____.

IX (glossopharyngeal)

Ventral surface:
The prominent central band of tissue that joins the inferior tongue to the mandible is the _____ _______.

lingual frenulum

Ventral surface:
Lateral to the lingual frenulum are the ______ _________.

sublingual folds

Ventral surface:
Proximal to the sublingual folds are the _________ and ___________ salivary gland ducts

sublingual, submandibular

All motor innervation for the tongue is from CN _____, except for ___________, which is innervated by CN ____.

XII (hypoglossal), palatoglossus, X (vagus)

Sensory innervation of the anterior portion of the tongue comes from the ______ _____ from the _________ branch of CN ___.

lingual nerve, mandibular, V

Sensory innervation of the posterior portion of the tongue comes from the branches of CN ____.

IX (glossopharyngeal)

Name the four intrinsic tongue muscles.

superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, transverse, vertical

When the superior longitudinal muscle is contracted bilaterally, it _______ and _______ the ____.

elevates, curves, tip

When the superior longitudinal muscle is contracted unilaterally, it pulls the tongue towards the ____ ___ ________.

side of contraction

The transverse muscle pulls edges towards the midline, effectively _________ the tongue.

narrowing

The vertical muscle ______ the tongue.

flattens

The inferior longitudinal muscle pulls the ____ of the tongue ______.

tip, down

The inferior longitudinal muscle assists in _____ the tongue when co-contracted with superior longitudinal.

retracting

Unilateral contraction of the inferior longitudinal muscle pulls the tongue to the ______ ____.

ipsilateral side

Name the five extrinsic tongue muscles.

genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, chondroglossus, palatoglossus

Contraction of the genioglossus pulls the tongue ______ (concave shape).

down

Contraction of the anterior fibers of the genioglossus will _____ the tongue.

retract

Contraction of the posterior fibers of the genioglossus will _____ the tongue.

protrude

The hyoglossus pulls the ____ of the tongue ____ and ______.

sides, down, back

The chondroglossus is sometimes considered to be part of the __________ muscle.

hyoglossus

The chondroglossus pulls the tongue ___________.

down

The styloglossus pulls the tongue ____ and ______.

up, back

The styloglossus in an antagonist of _________.

genioglossus

The ___________ muscle forms the anterior faucial pillar.

palatoglossus

The palatoglossus _____ the soft palate if the tongue is stabilized, or ______ the ______ of the tongue to form a groove if the palate is stabilized.

lowers, raises, sides

Which two tongue muscles assist in forming the central groove?

styloglossus, palatoglossus

The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) provides exclusively _________ innervation.

contralateral

The tongue can be considered as a deformable ________ _______, much like an elephant's trunk.

muscular hydrostat

The tip-body motions of the tongue can be independent or temporally overlapping - this is called __________.

coarticulation

___________ refers to a cancerous tumor (typically ______ ____ ________).

Carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma

Tongue cancer is most common in ________ (males/females) aged __________ years old.

males, 50-70

The most common site of lesion for cancerous tumors is the ______ _____ of the tongue, and on the _____.

anterior 2/3, side

Posterior site of lesions for cancerous tongue tumors tend to be at the _________.

midline

Name the two categories of neurological impairments.

upper motor neuron (UMN), lower motor neuron (LMN)

If there is an upper motor neuron impairment, the site of lesion is in the ______________________.

central nervous system

If there is a lower motor neuron impairment, the site of lesion is in the ___________________.

periphery

If there is an impairment to the innervation of the tongue, the tongue will always deviate to the ______ side.

weak

If there is a lower motor neuron (LMN) impairment affecting the left side of the tongue, the tongue will deviate to the ____.

left

If there is an upper motor neuron (UMN) impairment affecting the right side of the brain, then the tongue will deviate to the ____.

left

If the site of lesion is in the central nervous system, the tongue will deviate to the ____________ side.

contralateral

If the site of lesion affects the hypoglossal nerve or neuromuscular junction, the tongue will deviate to the ____________ side.

ipsilateral

What are the three types of lisps?

interdental, lateral, palatal

Which type of lisp is described below?:
- th produced instead of s
- Tongue tip pushed between teeth

interdental

Which type of lisp is described below?:
- /s,z/ produced with air escaping over sides of tongue
- Adds characteristic noise and proper fricative signal may not be produced

lateral

Which type of lisp is described below?:
- Attempts to make fricatives by contacting palate instead of forming anterior groove

palatal

___________ therapy is warranted in most cases of lisping.

Articulation

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