Gerontology Final Exam Questions

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A ________ is a bar chart that reflects population by age and sex

Population Pyramid

The combined ratio of children and older people to individuals aged 18-64 is called

Total Dependency Ratio

_______ is the rate at which birth occurs

Fertility

Which of the following is defined as the average number of years people in a given population can expect to live?

Life expectancy

The three-stage shift from high mortality & fertility rates to low mortality & fertility rates occurs through a socioeconomic process, which is called

demographic tansition

Which is defined as the number of males to every 100 females?

sex ratio

What is the leading cause of death in the US for people over the age of 65?

Heart Disease

What shape is a young nation in a population pyramid?

Triangular shape

Which term below fits the following definition: The incidence of death in a population

Mortality Rate

An example of an age integrated group is:

A family

In 2005 the U.S. life expectancy at birth was approximately

78 years

Humans are active agents that who create the society in which they live is known as "Social _______."

Constructionism

What is a period effect?

The impact of a historical event on the entire society

Age timetables refers to the idea that there are appropriate ages

For making various life course tansitions

What is the definition of an empty nest?

When a couple's children are grown and move out of the house.

What theory holds that normal aging involves a natural and inevitable mutual withdrawal from involvement with others?

Disengagement Theory

Which of the following is an example of cross-sectional research?

Asking a 20-yr. old, a 40-yr. old, and a 60-yr. old the same question

For many, the three major life trajectories are

Education, Work, Retirement

Which term matches the following definition: Produced by others' role changes.

Counter transitions

Social Clock means norms for

Ordering of major life events

Gerontologists define a "cohort" as:

Aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval

Systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against people because they are old is

Ageism

All are activities that gerontological specialist perform except:

Diagnosing

What are the three subdivisions of old age that many gerontologists use?

Young, Middle and Oldest

Research has found that most children's book portray the elderly:

in a stereotypical and negative fashion

The statement "Most older people are disabled" is a

Sterotype

The term "Geriatrics" is different from "Gerontology" because it focuses on _______ and aging

Health

A gerontologist who studies life transitions and trajectories is likely using the

Life Course Framework

Studying the life satisfaction of 2011 WMU graduates for the next 60 years is an example of

Longitudinal Research

Cultural expect ions for when life events occur is referred to as Age

Timetables

A theory is:

a broad explanation that provides the structure for organizing and interpreting multiple observable facts and their relationship to one another.

For both the disengagement and activity theories, the _____ is the subject matter.

Social System

Based on the definition of "deferred exchange strategies" the person most likely to be involved in this strategy would be a:

Family member

____________ is the study of population processes- fertility, mortality and migration.

Demography

In the year 2000 in the United State approximately ____ were 65 and older

12%

In the third stage of demographic transition, the population as a whole ages and more deaths are caused by ____.

chronic, long-term conditions

_______ theorists study social identity by wealth, gender, race and age.

Stratification

The statement "The rich get richer and the poor get poorer." Might be said by a Political Economist who supports the Theory of Cumulative

Education

Gerontologists define a "cohort" as:

Aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same intercal

The Young at Heart documentary provides support for the _____ theory of aging.

Activity

Medicare was established in

1965

Medicare Part A covers

Hospitalization

The public program that provides the most funding for nursing home (institutional) care is

Medicaid

What term refers to the amount of preretirement pay that is replaced by the social security retirement benefit?

Replacement rate

The three types of welfare in the welfare state are social insurance, fiscal welfare and

Public assistance

Social Security in an example of a(n)

entitlement program

What term refers to the taxes levied on workers and employers to fund social insurance programs?

Payroll tax

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a means -tested public assistance program for the aged, blind and

disabled poor

The measure of the number of years a person can expect to live without a disability is called?

active life expectancy

Older Americans Act services are generally provided

in the community

11. In order to be eligible for Medicaid, a person must be

low-income

Unstable molecules that are produced when the body transforms food into chemical energy

Free radical theory

Male baldness is caused by an interaction of testosterone and

genes

What are the dark spots or discoloration that you often see on the backs of very older people's hands or on their forearms?

lentigo

The most common form of human cancer is _____ cancer

skin

As people grow older, neurons

die and are not replaced

If an adult exhibits trembling, withdrawal from interaction, hallucinations, loss of balance they should probably be tested for

Parkinson's Disease

Presbyopia is the inability to focus on _______ and becomes more problematic with age.

Near Objects

Sleep problems are more likely in older

women

Presbycusis refers to the normal loss of ____ with age.

hearing

Osteoporosis is a disease of the

bones

When an older person's vision becomes cloudy they should be checked for

cataracts

Joint pain due to inflammation is likely due to

Arthritis

Menopause is the

Cessation of menstrual cycle

After age 50, rates of men experiencing erectile dysfunction

increase

If a person's arteries are less elastic and the heart must work hard to pump blood through the arteries, he or she likely has

Hypertension

Research on two types of intelligence shows that one type stays about the same in later life, and ________ declines.

fluid intelligence

As a person ages, if they experience more minor lapses in memory that is

normal

When learned information is placed into memory for later use, that is called

encoding

Memory that is kept in consciousness is referred to as _____ memory

short-term

Older people tend to be less able than younger people to

Juggle many items in their short-term memory

The most common form of dementia is

Alzheimer's Disease

Damage to the speech and language center in the brain is

aphasia

Older _______ are more likely to show depressive symptoms.

Women

Research has demonstrated that ________ is a good way to fight depressive symptoms in
later life.

Social Engagement

The major risk factor for vascular dementia is

High Blood Pressure

According to Erikson, in old age individuals struggle with integrity versus

despair

What refers to a range of behaviors an individual uses to meet demands?

adaptation

Match a term with the following definition: A mental disorder caused by severe deterioration of the brain.

Dementia

What is required to identify relationships and to make conclusions on the basis of that understanding?

Fluid Intelligence

A unit of a mother, father and two children is best described as a ____________ family.

Nuclear

Individuals who provide assistance, emotional interaction, and social interaction are referred to by gerontologists as

Social Support

Women have stronger, more extended social networks.

True

In the U.S. in 2000, 26% of 75-84 year old _____ and 71% of 75-84 year old _____ are married.

Women, Men

When a married couple is in the early years of retirement, their level of marital satisfaction is _______ when they were first married.

About the same as

Most late life divorces are initiated by

Wives

Approximately what proportion of marriages end in divorce?

1 out of 2

A UCLA study of 70-94 year olds found that unmarried men reported ______ sexual activity compared to women.

About the same level of

Children whose parents have divorced have _____ a sense of obligation to parents than those in intact families.

Less of

A grandparent who provides very frequent, parent-like interaction with a grandchild would be described as

Involved

According to the textbook, the most significant growth trend in housing for the elderly is

Assisted living facilities

Grandparents who maintained a ________ relationship with their grandchildren focused on emotionally satisfying, leisure-time activities and reported an easygoing, friendly style of interaction.

Companionate

Which term matches the following definitions: Situation when people grow older in four or maybe even five family generations.

Bean Pole family structure

Most individuals aged 65 to 74 still live with a spouse.

True

White men are ________ to live with spouse than Black, Asian or Hispanic men.

more likely

When older adult children and their parents live together, it is more likely that

adult children move in with parents

The movement of older people to the Sun Belt, is called

Migratory stream

The most common adaptive modification in the homes of the elderly with physical

handrails/grab bars

Between 1994 and 2004, there was ________ in home ownership.

a significant increase

Residents of assisted living facilities are more likely to be satisfied with their setting if staff

encourage autonomy in decision making

The percent of elderly people living with their children was _____ in 1850 compared to 2000.

Much higher

A little higher About the same Much lower major drawback of continuing care retirement communities is the:

Cost

Elderly people preferring to stay in their homes as they grow older is a choice called

Aging in place

Since many more women began working outside the home in the late 1960s and 1970s, it makes sense that there was a sharp increase in the employment of women aged 65 and over in

2007

In comparing the years 1983 to 2006, in 2006 58-62 year old men were _______ to be working for the same employer they worked for when they were 50.

less likely

When considering the health of the 45-64 year old age group, blacks are ______ to be able to work as whites.

less likely

In 2001, which group of women was most likely to be working as a domestic servant

Hispanic

In Germany in 2002 less than half of the population aged 55-64 was in the workforce.

True

If ______ part-time work.
you are working part-time because you are unable to find full-time work, that is called

economic

The trend in jobs from 1977 to 2007 indicates a _____ in part-time work schedules and a _____ in full-time work schedules for those 65 and over.

decrease, increase

When spouses retire at about the same time, that is called _______ retirement.

joint

When an employer regularly adds funds to an investment account for a worker, that is called a

defined contribution

Gerontologists predict that U.S. workers will work ______ years in the future.

more

Over the past 30 years, retirement volunteering has _______.

increased

________ is any arrangement that allows older workers to reduce their responsibilities and ease gradually into full retirement.

Phased retirement

In her recent editorial in the Baltimore Sun, Susan Reimer advocates that Baby Boomers should

Ease into retirement

Research results indicate people who are ______ have more positive attitudes in retirement and higher satisfaction with retirement.

married

Which word best describes a pension plan in which the set monthly benefit level is based on year of service and prior earnings?

Defined benefit

The most common form of volunteering among older adults is

Religious organization

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 banned discrimination against workers aged 40-65 and forbade employers from firing, demoting, or reducing salaries of older workers

without a good cause

The theory that indicates that people who begin life with fewer resources continue to have fewer opportunities to accumulate them in later years is:

Cumulative Disadvantage Theory

In a study examining hypertension among African Americans, Jamaicans, and Nigerians, it was found that an explanation of hypertension among African Americans is mainly:

Enviromental

Due to immigration status and other factors, which of the following ethnic groups is least likely to have health insurance?

Hispanics/Latinos in the U.S.

Until the 1950s, the primary means for reimbursing physicians was through:

fee for service

There have been several health care plans to control the growth of Medicare. Which one of the following plans began in the 1980s and specifies a fixed cost for a specific time period in which the patient is hospitalized?

Diagnostic related grouping

The first stage of epidemiological transition is

Age of pestilence and famine

Several studies have found social support to have a positive effect on the cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems.

True

Care of the frail elderly exists on a continuum of care. The least formal care is performed by:

family members

All of the following are activities of daily living except:

reading the newspaper

The primary caregiver, in all studies, usually are:

women

There is a gender difference in the division of labor among caregivers. Daughters are more likely to provide all of the following except:

household chores

One study examining stress for women caring for a parent with Alzheimer's disease found that the greatest source of stress was:

siblings

A study of 20 adolescent grandchildren of Alzheimer's patients found that the caregiving experience had had a/an ________ influence on family relationships.

positive

Which of the following activities is not one performed by home and community- based services?

Travel Plans

The two major causes of death are heart disease and _______ .

Cancer

Members of racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to be accepted for _________ on admission to nursing homes than Caucasians.

Medicaid

The physician Elizabeth Kubler-Ross identified five stages of dying. Which of the following is NOT one of those five stages?

confusion

In a ________, individuals specify their wish for treatment in advance. A. living testimony

living will

Who has the highest rate of suicide among those aged 65 and older, according to the U.S. Census Bureau?

White Men

Suicide, among the elderly, often occurs without:

warning

A main component of the hospice philosophy is:

pain management

The main source of payment support for hospice care is:

Medicare

The problem of widowhood for men is compounded by the traditional role of:

independence

The number of adult children who have lost both their parents by age 62 is:

75%

A pattern of behavior based on choices and options that are available to people according to their life situations.

Health Lifestyle

Over the past forty years, rates of smoking among men have ________.

Decreased

Which one is NOT one of the 3 main indicators of socioeconomic status (SES)?

Marriage

What is the major cause of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?

Smoking

After smoking, what is the next most important lifestyle that affects health in later life?

Excerise

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