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. A ____ includes all the members of a species that live together in a defined geographical area.

Population

2. If a contagious virus that destroys antelope brain cells spreads throughout the entire range of pronghorn antelopes, what level/levels would be affected?

All of these (organisms, communities, populations, organs)

3. A community is composed of the populations of different ____ living in a single region.

Species

4. Single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus are ____, and belong to the two domains ____ and ____.

Prokaryotic, bacteria, archaea

5. The sum of chemical processes that enable an organism to obtain and store energy from sunlight is called

Photosynthesis

6. The sum of all chemical reactions that occur within cells in called

Metabolism

7. An organism's ability to maintain internal stability when the external environment changes is defined as

Homeostasis

8. A fundamental characteristic of life on Earth is that ____.

Living things grow and reproduce

9. The sum of chemical processes that enable an organism to obtain and store energy from sunlight is called

Photosynthesis

10. Single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus are ____, and belong to the two domains ____ and ____.

Prokaryotic, bacteria, archaea

11. Organisms that make their own food are called ____; organisms that must obtain energy from molecules made by other organisms are called ____.

Autotrophs; heterotrophs

12. The idea put forward by Lamarck, which stated that organisms could pass on to their offspring physical changes the parents developed during their own lifetimes, is known as ___.

Inheritance of acquired characteristics

13. Birds and mammals have similar forelimbs, four-chambered hearts, and a notochord at some stage of development. These similarities are BEST explained by

A common ancestry

14. Mammalian appendages with similar bone structures can be used for flying, swimming, running, or grasping. These are examples of ____ structures.

Homologous

15. When unrelated organisms living under similar environmental demands evolve similar-appearing structures, it is called

Convergent evolution

16. The wings of insects and bats are ____ structures.

Analogous

17. Evidence for a common ancestry of vertebrates is

The similarity of their embryology

18. Which of the following is NOT a postulate of Darwin's and Wallace's theory of natural selection?

Variations are caused by mutations of DNA

19. The large, productive udders of domesticated milk goats and cows are ____ structures.

Artificially selected

20. The fact that whales have pelvic and leg bones indicates

Ancestral whales had legs

21. Mammalian appendages with similar bone structures can be used for flying, swimming, running, or grasping. These are examples of ____ structures.

Homologous

22. Which of the following scientist explained fossils as examples of species extinction through worldwide catastrophes?

Cuvier

23. Which scientist devised the theory of uniformitarianism, which indicated a much greater age of the Earth?

Lyell

24. The theory of natural selection states that

The most well-adapted individuals in their environments survive and reproduce, contributing the most genes to the next generation

25. Natural selection can only act upon a certain trait of the trait is

Heritable

26. A change on the genetic makeup of a population is called

Evolution

27. Which of these definitions of species most closely matches the biological species concept?

Members of the same species can mate and produce fertile offspring

28. Two species of garter snakes live in the same geographic area. One mainly lives in water and the other mainly on land, so that they rarely encounter each other and do not interbreed. This is an example of what type of genetic isolation?

Ecological

29. The elaborate courtship rituals of many bird species help to preserve genetic isolation due to

Behavioral isolation

30. Two species of pines live in the same regions of California. However, they do not interbreed because one releases pollen in February and the other in April. What is the genetic isolating mechanism involved?

Temporal

31. One method of protecting the genetic isolation of a population is the inability of sperm to fertilize eggs of a different species. This is called

Gametic incompatibility

32. Horses and donkeys can mate successfully to produce mules, which are always sterile. Which genetic isolating mechanism is involved here to prevent horses and donkeys from becoming single species?

Hybrid infertility

33. When some hybrid organisms do not live long, it is an example of

Hybrid inviability

34. A likely group of animals in which to look for cases of sympatric speciation would be:

Parasitic intestinal worms

35. Which of the following is a premating reproductive isolating mechanism?

All of the above (ecological isolation, temporal isolation, behavioral isolation, mechanical incompatibility)

36. Populations of living organisms once considered to be separate species are now sometimes assigned to the same species because:

It was discovered that they can produce viable and fertile hybrid offspring

37. Two species of squirrels live on either side of the Grand Canyon. Their speciation is most likely an example of:

Geographical isolation

38. The Great Dane and the Chihuahua are both domestic dogs (the same species), but mating between them is primarily limited by:

Mechanical incompatibility

39. The greatest cause of extinction is:

Habitat change

40. Which species is most likely to become extinct?

Kirtland's warbler, which breeds only in a small area of Michigan

41. Two species of squirrels live on either side of the Grand Canyon. It is believed that a long time ago, before being separated by the canyon, they were the same species. This is an example of

Allopatric speciation

42. According to chemical and molecular evidence, members of the Kingdom Fungi are most closely related to which of these groups in the "tree of life?"

Animals

43. Which of the following is prokaryotic?

Archaea

44. Which of the following is eukaryotic?

Fungi

45. The scientist usually given credit for disproving the theory of spontaneous generation of bacteria was:

Pasteur

46. After Earth formed over 4 billion years ago, the early atmosphere probably contained which of the following gasses?

Methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water vapor

47. The first self-replicating molecules on Earth were probably:

RNA molecules

48. Laboratory research has shown that if a solution containing lipids and proteins is agitated for a long time, ____ are produced.

Cell-like vesicles

49. The organisms originally responsible for releasing oxygen into Earth's atmosphere were:

Photosynthetic bacteria

50. ____ may have evolved from aerobic bacteria, and ____ may have evolved from photosynthetic cyanobacteria engulfed by predatory cells.

Mitochondria; chloroplasts

51. The first multicellular terrestrial organisms were:

Plants

52. The first animals that evolved in the oceans were most like modern-day ____ animals.

Invertebrate

53. About 530 mya, what adaptation evolved in fish that allowed them to become fast, dominant predators?

Internal skeleton

54. ____ eliminated the need for water for reproduction in plants.

Pollen

55. Paleontologists believe that mammals evolve directly from:

Reptiles

56. The fossil evidence indicates that amphibians evolved from a specific group of:

Fish

57. The greatest extinction event of all time occurred 245 million years ago, at the end of the ____ period.

Permian

58. Which of the following separated primates from other mammals?

Grasping hands

59. Currently, it is believed that the highly developed brain and complex social interactions of Homo sapiens likely evolved in response to:

Hunting and meat consumption

60. The largest or most inclusive group listed below is

Phylum

61. Which of the following is the correct way to write the scientific name of the wolf?

Canis lupus

62. Canis latrans, Canis lupus, Canis familiaries are all in the same

Genus and family B and C

63. If two organisms are members of the same kingdom they MUST also be members of the same

None of the above

64. ____ results in similar anatomical features between organisms that may be misleading when trying to determine species relationships.

Convergent evolution

65. The Swedish naturalist who established the modern system for classifying organisms was

Linnaeus

66. Who introduced the "two-part" system (genus and species) that is used when biologists name organisms?

Linnaeus

67. Which Kingdom contains mostly unicellular, eukaryotic organisms?

Protista

68. What is the primary difference between kingdoms Bacteria and Protista?

Bacteria are prokaryotes, whereas protists are eukaryotes

69. In a deciduous oak forest of the American northeast, one example of an abiotic component of the ecosystem would be

Sunlight that filters through the canopy

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