Rutter et al (2007)
A longitudinal study comparing romanian orphans placed with UK families with UK orphans who had also been placed ith families, they found disinhibited attatchment was more evident in Romanian adoptees, especially the ones adopted from 6-24 months old. This shows the longer you stay in an institution he more likely you are to show disinhibitation.
Strengths of Rutter et al (2007)
It's a longtitudinal study, meaning they were able to look at the long term effects of institutional care on children and they looked at the children in lots of detail.
Weaknesses of Rutter et al
A biased sample - only the best children were likely to have been adopted. Cannot make a generalisation about all institution around the world - these were only severe conditions.
When the children are overly friendly and attention seeking.
Hodges and Tizzard
longtitudinal study, looking at 65 children who were plaaced in an institution when they were less than 4 months old, by 4 years old 24 of the children had been adopted, 15 returned to their original homes, and the rest stayed at the institution. At 8 and 16 years they matched up teh adopted out children and children who returned to their original homes with similar children in their classes to make comparisons and conducted interviews, they found the adopted children had closer attatchments and good relationships however therestored children had problems making friends and often attention seeked.
Strengths of Hodges and Tizzard
Very ecologically valid, real children who have been in an institution, very controlled (all children were put into care before 4 months old) longtitudinal study meant they could accurately look at the effects of instituational care in later life.
Weaknesses of Hodges and Tizzard
The children who were adopted are likely to be children who were already making progress, and some participants dropped out of the study (particularly those who were less well adjusted0 leaving a biased sample.