FINAL FOR A&P 2

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The fibrous skeleton of the heart serves as electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles

True

Parasympathetic stimulation reduces heart rate.

True

Repolarization of a ventricular cardiocyte takes longer than repolarization of a typical neuron.

True

The ventricles are almost empty at the end of ventricular diastole.

False

Endurance athletes commonly have a resting heart rate as low as 40 bpm, and stroke volume as low as 50 mL/beat.

false

_____ is the most superficial layer enclosing the heart?

Parietal pericardium

The tricuspid valve regulates the opening between?

the right atrium and the right ventricle

Obstruction of the _____ will cause a more severe myocardia infarction (MI) than the obstruction of any of the others.

left coronary artery (LCA)

Which of these is NOT part of the cardiac conduction system?

the tendinous cords (TC)

The pacemaker potential is a result of

Na+ inflow.

If the sinoatrial (SA) is damaged, the heart will likely beat at?

40 to 50 bpm

Atrial depolarization begins during?

the P wave

When the left ventricle contracts the ____ valve closes and the ____ valve is pushed open.

mitral; aortic

During isovolumetric contraction, the pressure in the ventricles?

rises rapidly.

Most of the ventricle filling occurs?

during atrial diastole.

Congestive heart failure (CHF) of the right ventricle?

can cause systemic edema

the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle in one min. is called?

the caridac output

The mechanisim that keeps the testes cooler than the bodys core temp. is called descent of the testes?

false

Sustentacular cells secrete inhibin, which regulates the rate of sperm production.

true

At early puberty, follic stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) stimulat enlargment of the testes.

true

Only germ cells undergo meiosis which produces four haploid cells withing 23 chromosomes each.

true

Myotonia of skeletal muscles is characteristic of the excitment phase and refractory period.

false.

Which of the following is a secondary sex organ?

vagina

The gene that codes for the testis-determining factor (TDF) is found in or on?

the Y chromosome.

____ stimulates the descent of the testes?

testosterone

From their formation to ejaculation, sperm cells take the follwiing pathway?

seminiferou tubule, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra (SRED)

The blood-testis barrier?

prevents antibodies in the blood from getting to the germ cells

The penile urethra is enclosed by the?

corpus sponginosum.

The____ is/are the site(s) of sperm maturation and storage.

epididymides

Which of the following hormones directly stiumlates the development of male secondary sex characteristics?

testosterone

Which hormone suppresses spermatogenesis without affecting testosterone secretion?

inhibin

Changes called male climacteric are a consequence of?

increased secretion of FSH and LH

In meiosis, each parent cell produces?

four haploid cells.

The most important role of meiosis in sexual reproduction is?

that it prevents the chromosome number from doubling in each generation

Male infertility (sterility) refers to?

the inability to fertilize an egg.

A sperm count any lower than ____ million sperm per mL of semen is usually associate with infertility.

20 to 25

Erection is?

an autonomic reflex meditated predoimantly by PARASYMPTHETIC nerve fiberes.

Blood flow is pulsatile in arteries and veins but it is steady in capillaries.

false

Most tissue fluid is reabsorbed by the lymphatic system.

false

Lung tissue receives nourishment and waste removal from the pulonary circut?

false

Blood filtered through the hepatic sinusoids exists the liver via the hepatic veins.

true

The radial artery is lateral to the ulnar artery.

true

The outermost wall of an arter or vein is called the ____ and in large arteries and veins contains the ____.

tunica externa; vasa vasorum

These are all possible circulatory routs from the hear except....

heart > arteries > capillary bed >vein > capillary bed > arteries > heart

The medullary ischemic reflex results in?

increased circulation to the brain

All of these increase blood pressure except?

atrial natriuretic peptide

_____ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and _____ also increases heart rate.

Epinephrine and angiotensin II, epinephrine

_____ by the capillaries at their venous end.

Ammonia is taken up.

_____ would NOT increase capillary filtration.

Obstructed venous return

_____ shock can be produced by hemorrhage, severe burns or dehydration.

hypovolemic

Myocardial infarction can lead to ______ shock.

cardiogenic.

Pulmonary arteries have______ vlood pressure compared to systemic arteries.

considerably lower

There are no _____ in humans.

right and left brachiocephalic ARTERIES.

The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is?

an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland

The principal venous drainage of the thoracis organs is accomplished bythe way of?

the azygos system

Testosterone is a gonadotropin.

false

Thyroid hormone has a calorigenic effect.

true

Peptide hormones are synthesized by cytoplasmic ribosomes as active enzymes.

false.

Eicosanoids are derived from steroids.

false

Addison disease is a consequence of a tumor of the adrenal medulla.

false

__ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology.

paracrines.

The ___ is not an endocrine gland but it has a role in endocrine function.

kidney

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the ?

anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the

kidneys

The infundibulum is?

a projection of the hypothalamus in which the pituitary gland hangs

The ___ secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells).

thymus

The ___ secrete(s) ___, which promotes Na+ and water retention.

adrenal cortex; aldosterone

These are all secreted by the pancreas except

somotropin (growth hormone)

___ is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

glucagon

___ enters the target cell's nuclei and acts directly on the genes.

estrogen

During the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress overwhelms homeostasis. A characteristic of this stage is that?

energy demandands are primarily met by CARBOHYDRATE metabolisim

Eicosanoids are derived from?

arachidonic acid

Diabetes insipidus is caused by?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) HYPOsecretion.

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by the following except?

hypoglycemia

Lymphoid hemopoiesis occurs mainly in the bone marrow.

false

The most important components of the cytoplasm of RBCs are hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase.

true

Rh incompatibility between a sensitized Rh+ woman and an Rh- fetus can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn.

false

Monocytes differentiate into large phagocytic cells.

true

After a wound is sealed, tissue repair is followed by fibrinolysis.

true

Hematocrit is ____________ of the total blood volume.

37-52 percent

_____________ is the most abundant protein in plasma.

Albumin

Tissues can become edematous (swollen) when?

there is dietery protein sufficency

Erythrocytes transport oxygen and serve to?

transport carbon dioxide

An increased erythropoietin (EPO) output by the kidneys would lead to all of the following except?

increased hypoxemia

______________ is more likely to cause anemia than any of the other factors below.

renal insufficency

Correction of hypoxemia is regulated by?

a NEGATIVE feedback loop

The ABO blood group is determined by _____________ in the plasma membrane of RBCs.

glycoLIPIDS

RhoGAM is an antibody given to Rh- women who give birth to a Rh+ child. RhoGAM is what type of plasma protein?

gamma (y) globulin

The main reason why an individual AB, Rh-negative cannot donate blood to an individual A, Rh-positive is because?

anti-B antibodies in the RECIPIENT will agglutinate RBCs of the donor.

These are the most abundant agranulocytes.

lymphocytes

Leukopoiesis begins with the differentiation of?

Pluripotent stem cells (PPSCs)

All these can cause leukopenia except?

dehydration

The cessation of bleeding is specifically called?

HEMOstasis

All of these prevent the spontaneous formation of a clot except?

presence of tissue thromboplastin

Most strokes and heart attacks are caused by the abnormal clotting of blood in an unbroken vessel. Moreover, a piece of the ____________ (clot) may break loose and begin to travel in the bloodstream as a(n) ______________.

thrombus, embolus

The vagina has no glands but it is moistened by mucus from glands in the cervical canal.

true

The number of ovarian follicles declines with age, leading to a reduction of estrogen levels.

true

The proliferative phase of the uterus is drive by estrogen from the ovaries?

true

Human chronic gonadotropin (HCG) stimulates the corpus luteum to grow and secrete estrogen and progesterone.

true

Oxytocin stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cell of the mammary acini.

True

The ___ arteries rhythmically consrict and dialate causing the uterine mucose to blanch and flush with blood.

internal iliac

Most of the natural lubrication during female sexual excitment is proveded by the?

greater vestivular (Bartholin) glands

_____ are found in both male and femal external genitalia, but the ____ is/are only found in the female.

Corpora cavernosea; vestibular bulbs

Follicles are located in the?

cortex of the ovary.

_____ acts primarily in the uterus.

Progesterone

During climcteric, sudden ______ may cause hot flashes.

vasodilation of cutaneous arteries

The ovulated egg is at?

metaphase II

After expelling the oocyte, the follicle becomes the ____ and secreates_____.

corpus luteum; ESETROGEN AND PROGESTERONE

Oogenesis starts?

during embryonic development.

Which of these blood hormone levels reaches its maximum during the luteal phase?

progesterone

The ____ phase is the one associasted with menstrul cramps and typically occurs _____ of the cycle.

premenstrual; days 27 to 28

During the plateau phase, the flans and clitoris swell as the _____ arteries dilate and the corpus and corpora _____ engorge with blood.

deep; cavernosa.

The basis of pregnancy test kits is the presence of ___, which is secreated by the _____.

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); blastocyst and placenta

The most abundant estrogen of pregnancy is ___, but one that accounts for the most of the estrogenic effects in pregnancy is ____.

estriol, estradiol

Milk ejection, stimulation of nerve endings in the ____ leads to the release of _____ from the pituitary.

nipple and areola; oxytocin

The fertilization membrane is the endometrial tissue that receives the conceptus.

false

The embryonic stage extends from 16 days through the end of week 8.

true

Trophoblastic nutrition refers to the nutrition of the conceptus before it implants.

false

Premature infants suffer especially from multiple dysfunctions resulting from inadequate liver function.

true

Life expectancy has steadily incread in teh last century, whereas life span has not.

false

In the slow block to polyspermy, sperm penetration releases an inflow of _____, which in turn stimulates the ______.

CA2+; cortical reaction

The optimal "window of opportunity" to conveive a child is?

a few days before ovulation to less than a day after

In the blastocyst, the trophoblast will become_____, wheras the embryoblast will become______.

part of the placenta; the embryo

During implantation, the trophoblast divides into a deep layer, the ____, composed of individual cells, and a superficial layer, the _____, composed of multinucleate mass of cytoplasm.

cytotrophoblast, syncytiorophoblast

Prior to ejaculation, ____ in the sperm membrane prevents premature release of ____.

cholesterol; acrosomal enzymes

By the end of 8 weeks, the individual is considered a fetus because...

all of the organ systems are present.

In fetal circulation, the ____ bypassses the liver and the _____ bypasses the lungs.

ductus VENOSUS, ductus arteriosus

Oxygenated blood reaches the fetus through the?

umbilical VEIN.

The digital rays of a fetus give rise to?

fingers and toes

During birth, an infant is normally stimulated to breath by?

CO2 accumulating in the babys blood.

Which of these organ systems faces the greatest physiological challenge in the transitional period after birth?

respiratory

Down syndrome (trisomy-21) results from

nondisjunction

Urine retention is greater problem for elderly men than for elederly women because men

usually develop benign prostatic hyperplasia

Telomeres?

are DNA segments at each end of a chromosome.

Which of the following systems shows the least overall senescene?

endocrine

Mucous membranes prevent most pathogens from entering the body because of the stickiness of the mucus and the presence of lysozymes.

True

Pyrogens act by increasing the set point for body tempature in teh thalamus.

false

Helper T cells respond only to epitopes attached to MHC proteins.

True

Naive T cells can synthesize antibodies.

false

Some antibodies against foreign antigens can react to similar self-antigens causing an autoimmune disease.

true

Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ___ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.

lipids

_____ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the ____.

Collecting ducts; subclavian veins

This is the only lymphatic organ with afferent lymphatic vessels.

lymph node

____ are found especially in the myucous membrane, standing guard against parasites, and allergens.

eosinophils.

____ are secreted by cells infect with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protection them from becoming infected.

interferons

This is the first of a series of neutrophil behaviorsin inflammation?

margination

All these cellular agents participate in inflammation except?

cytotoxic T cells

___ are antimicrobial proteins.

interferons

Cellular (cell-meditated) immunity is efefctive against?

cancer cells

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