People prefer to work in groups than independently, and action taken by people is more effective this way.
The people, through the state, own the means of production. Private property is abolished.
A term, literally referring to the 'brotherhood', commonly used in socialism and suggesting that members of the working class have a common bond that is as strong as a family link.
Socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrine; believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions and a compromise with capitalism
Equality of Outcome
Rewards should be based on the value of contributions and differences between rewards will not be too considerable. Government policies will be designed to ensure that this occurs. Link to Democratic Socialism.
A morally justifiable distribution of wealth, usually implying a commitment to greater equality.
Progress brought about by gradual, piecemeal improvements, rather than dramatic upheaval; change through legal and peaceful reform. Link with Bernstein and Evolutioary Socialists.
Marx's term for the struggle between the capitalists, who own the means of production, and the proletariat, who do not. Moderate Socialists place less importance on this.
Term created by New Labour and refers to those groups in society that suffer multiple deprivation and therefore do not enjoy the usual rewards, choices and opportunities. Social and economic policy should be directed at such groups.
A more moderate/reformist form of socialism committed to democratic methods and a pluralist political system. Favours a balance between the market and the state rather than abolish capitalism.
A term coined by the sociologist Anthony Giddens. It referes to New Labour policies after 1992 that steered a path between socialism ('first way') and neo-liberalism ('second way'), beoming a middle path to social justice within a free market, capitalist society.
A theory or practice based on the desie to promote equality; egalitarianism is sometimes seen as the belief that equalty is the primary political value.
A belief in the unlimited possibilities of human development, typically embodied in the vision of a perfect society. Term often used critically to describe early socialist movements and thinkers (Fourier and Owen).
Equality of Opportunity
Everyone is entitled to equal chances to make the best of their abilities. Positive steps should be taken to ensure this happens. There should be no artificial barriers to the progress of any individual or group. Link to Social Democracy.
All individuals recieve the same rewards as long as their contribution is to the best of their ability. The ultimate goal of Marxists/Communists.
19th Century author of 'The Communist Manifesto' and 'Das Kapital'. Believed that the working class were exploited by the owners of property and the only way to achieve equality was for the workers to revolt, 'lose their chains' and establish a 'dictatorship of the proletariat' before the state would eventually 'wither away'.
Argued (contrary to Marx) that socialist principles would be best advanced through democratic, parliamentary means. He rejected the notion that inequality would inevitably worsen through capitalism, and advocated the that socialist should form parties and attempt to implement reforms. Branded a traitor and a revisionist by Marxists.
English politician best known for his work 'The Future of Socialism' in 1956. This book attacked the view that the most effective way of achieving socialist aims was through the nationalisation of industry. He argued that Socialism be allowed to flourish as ling as it created wealth effectively and did not exploit workers. Social Justice would be assured through some redistribution of wealth and a cradle-to-grave welfare state. Associated with Social Democracy.
English politician who would describe himself as a 'traditional or democratic socialist'. Believes in 'taming capitalism' and large scale nationalisation of industry. Public ownership and planning could ensure full employment. Believed that once people experienced a truly democratic socialist state they would not want to go back voluntarily.
The economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Would severely modify capitalism, but stop short of abolishing it. Would introduce high levels of progressive taxation, strict controls over industry and high levels of state sponsored welfare.
Author of 'Beyond Left and Right and 'The Third Way'. Along with Peter Mandelson and Tony Blair, one of the architects of thThird Way which influenced the New Labour project from 1994-2007.
Term used by later socialist thinkers to describe early socialist or quasi-socialist intellectuals who created hypothetical visions of perfect egalitarian and communalist societies without actually concerning themselves with the manner in which these societies could be created or sustained. Associated with Robert Owen and Charles Fourier.
According to Karl Marx, a classless and stateless society at its ultimate peak of historical development. The end product of a Socialist revolution after the transitional 'dictatorship of the proletariat'. Although many countries have been called 'Communist' (USSR, Cuba) it has arguably has never been seen in human history.
Transfer of income to one segment of one population to another segment. Typically done from wealthy to poor ('Robin Hood' approach). This is done by many different ways. Popular way is by progressive taxation and/or benfits.
The section of the British Labour Party Constitution that Tony Blair changed to remove radical leftist ideas. He amended this section, which includes
ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange, and the best obtainable system of popular administration and control of each industry or service.
The process of transferring a branch of industry or commerce from private to state ownership or control. Associated with most socialist governments is post WW2 Europe. The gas, rail, airline, steel, electricity and coal industries were nationalised in the UK.
Different socialists have different attitudes towards it. Marxists would abolish it; Democratic Socialists would severely modify it; whereas Social Democrats would merely regulate it.
Different socialists have different attitudes towards it. Social Democrats would peserve individual freedoms almost without reservation; Democratic Socialists would preserve them as long as there was no conflict with socialist objectives; whereas Marxists believe individual freedo is a bourgeois concept - collective freedom is created though equality.
Socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions. Used by Marxists in a pejorative way.