Science Midterm Review

Created by diandradk 

Upgrade to
remove ads

I'm just giving this to y'all..

theory

explanation of things or events that is based on knowledge gained from many observations and experiments

science

systematic way of learning more about the natural world that provides possible explanations to questions and involves using a collection of skills

scientific theory

a possible explanation for repeatedly observed patterns in nature supported by observations and results from many investigations

scientific law

a rule that describes a pattern in nature but does not try to explain why something happens

system

a set of objects or parts that form a whole

life science

study of living systems and how they interact

Earth science

study of Earth systems and systems in space, including weather and climate systems, and the study of nonliving things such as rocks, oceans, and planets

physical science

study of matter, which is anything that takes up space and has mass, and the study of energy, which is the ability to cause changes

technology

use of science to help people in some way

observation

a record of description of an occurrence or pattern in nature

hypothesis

reasonable guess that can be tested and is based on what is known and what is observed

infer

to draw a conclusion based on observation

controlled experiment

involves changing one factor and observing its effect on one thing while keeping all other things constant

variable

factor that can be changed in an experiment

independent variable

factor that is intentionally varied by the experimenter

dependent variable

factor that may change as a result of changes purposefully made to the independent variable

constant

variable that is not changed in an experiment

scientific method

processes scientists use to collect information and answer questions

model

any representation of an object or an event that is used as a tool for understanding the natural world; can communicate observations and ideas, test predictions, and save time, money, and lives

theories/laws

theories: explain how nature works
laws: describes what nature does under certain conditions
both: based on tested hypothesis, supported by data, and help unify a particular field

observation/inference

observation: a recored or description of an occurrence or pattern in nature
inference: a drawn conclusion based on observations

density

mass of an object divided by its volume
D = M/V

earthquake

sudden release of energy within Earth's crust that causes wave movement in the rock layers of the crust

lithosphere

rigid layer of Earth about 100km thick, made of the crust and a part of the upper mantle

inner core

solid, innermost layer of Earth's interior that is the hottest part of Earth and experiences the greatest amount of pressure

outer core

layer of Earth that lies above the inner core and is thought to be composed mostly of molten metal

plate

section of Earth's crust and rigid, upper mantle that moves slowly around the asthenosphere

mantle

largest layer of Earth's interior that lies above the outer core and is solid, yet flows slowly

crust

Earth's outermost layer that is the thinnest under the oceans and thickest through the mountains and contains all features of Earth's surface

subduction

a type of plate movement that occurs when one plate sinks beneath another plate

fault

large fracture in rock along which movement occurs

erosion

removal process by which products of weathering are moved to other locations

fault-block mountain

sharp, jagged mountains made of huge, tilted blocks of rock that are separated from surrounding rock by faults and form because of pulling forces

folded mountain

mountain that forms by the folding of rock layers caused by compressive forces

unwarped mountain

mountain that forms when forces inside Earth push up on the crust

volcano

an opening in Earth's surface that erupts sulfurous gases, ash, and lava; generally a mountain-like structure

isostasy

principle stating that Earth's lithosphere floats on a plastic-like upper part of the mantle called the asthenosphere

Earth's interior

four specific layers:
inner core: innermost layer, made of solid iron, pressured, hottest part of Earth
outer core: lies above inner core, made of molten metal, slows down seismic waves, liquid iron
mantle: largest layer, thickest layer, solid, but flows
crust: outermost layer, thinnest, contains Earth's features

plate movement

all are theories;
convection, density differences (uneven heating), ridge push (causes ocean plates to slide), slab pull (plates sink when colliding)
plates are convergent (move together), divergent (move apart), and slide past each other

mountains and shaping forces

fault block: made of huge, tilted blocks of rock that are separated from surrounding rock by faults; tension forces (pull)
folded: formed by the folding of rock layers; compression forces (push)
unwarped: formed when forces inside Earth push up on the crust; compression forces (push)
volcanic: form when lama and ash build up in one area over time; tension forces (pull..?)

acid rain

acidic moisture, with a pH below 5.6

weathering

natural mechanical or chemical process that causes rock to change by breaking them down and causing them to crumble

mechanical weathering

process that breaks rocks down into smaller pieces without changing them chemically

soil

mixture of weathered rock, organic matter, water, and air that evolves over time and supports the growth of plant life

topography

configuration of surface features, including shape, position, and slope; also influences the type and composition of soils that develop

chemical weathering

process in which the chemical composition of rocks is changed by agents such as natural acids and oxygen

mass movement

occurs when gravity alone causes rock or sediment to move down a slope

cirque

a large bowl formed by valley glaciers by removing rock from mountaintops

glacier

formed in cold regions; two types: continental and valley

loess

accumulation of silt when it is deposited

runoff

water that flows over Earth's surface

sheet flow

water flowing downhill as a thin sheet

mechanical and chemical processes

mechanical--ice wedging: frozen water in cracks expands, temperature rises, and causes ice to thaw (cycle that breaks up rocks)
gravity: pulls large rocks down to break
plants and animals: plants grow in cracks where water collects and roots expand, animals burrow through rock, loosen soil, and break rock apart
wind: takes sediments away, breaking them down
chemical--natural acids: "everyday" elements combine to form acids, cause reactions or formations, and thus change chemical composition
plant acids: tannin/produced by plants, dissolve rock minerals, weaken rock
sulfuric acid: mixes with water to form acids
water: mixes with elements to form acids
oxygen: oxidation causes minerals containing iron to weather due to oxygen and weakens rock

factors of soil formation

parent rock: breaks down and forms smaller rocks after weathering
slope of land: with topography, influences soil development
climate: affects amount of organic material in soil
time: needed for rocks to weather and soil to form
organisms: lichens take nutrients starting to break down, roots break down parent rock

agents of erosion

gravity: force that pulls every object toward every other object
ice: causes glaciers, buries mountain ranges
wind: lifts and carries sediments
water: runoff, faster means more material

element

a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

period

horizontal row of elements in the periodic table whose properties change gradually and predictably

group

family of elements in the periodic table that have similar physical or chemical properties

metal

element that has luster, is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of hear and electricity

nonmetal

element that is usually a gas or brittle solid at room temperature and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity

metalloid

element that shares some properties with both metals and nonmetals

transition elements

elements in group 3-12 in the periodic table, all of which are metals

representative elements

elements in groups 1 and 2 and 13-18 in the periodic table table that include metals, nonmetals, and metalloids

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of a given element

alkali metals

elements in group 1 of the periodic table; likes to combine with the halogens

halogens

elements in group 17 of the periodic table; likes to combine with the alkali metals

alkaline earth metals

elements in group 2 of the periodic table

noble gases

elements in group 18 of the periodic table

semiconductor

element that does not conduct electricity as well as a metal but conducts it better than a nonmetal

mass number

the sum of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom

catalyst

substance that can make something happen faster but not change itself

lanthanides

the first series of inner transition elements which goes from cerium to lutetium

actinides

the second series of inner transition elements which goes from thorium to lawrencium

element key

has element, the atomic number, the symbol, the atomic mass, and the state of matter
the atomic number is the number of protons in the element
the symbol is (usually) a short abbreviation of the element, one to two letters
the atomic mass is the sum of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom
the logo for the state of matter shows if the element is a solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature
gases are marked with a balloon
whereas solids are marked with a cube
liquids are marked with a water droplet
unnatural elements are marked with a bulls-eye

organization of periodic table

divided into groups and periods
groups: contain elements that have similar physical or chemical properties
periods: rows of elements in the periodic table whose chemical and physical properties change gradually and predictably
the representative elements are groups 1-2 and 13-18; they include metals, metalloids, and nonmetals
groups 3-12 are transition elements; all are metals
the inner transition elements are placed below the main table and are called the lanthanide and actinide series

properties of representative elements

check out "chart template 4.2".. I can't copy and paste the chart

chemical change

change in which the identity of a substance changes and forms a new substance or substances

electron cloud

area where negatively charged electrons, arranged in energy levels, travel around an atom's nucleus

energy level

the different areas for an electron in an atom

electron dot diagram

chemical symbol for an element, surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in its outer energy level

chemical bond

force that holds two atoms together

compound

pure substance that contains two or more elements

ion

atom that is no longer neutral because it has gained or lost an electron

ionic bond

attraction that holds oppositely charged ions close together

metallic bond

bond formed when metal atoms share their pooled electrons

covalent bond

chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons

molecule

neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons

polar bond

bond resulting from the unequal sharing of electrons

chemical formula

combination of symbols and numbers that indicates which elements and how mant atoms of each element are present in a molecule

electron arrangement in an atom

are present in energy levels around the nucleus

electron arrangement's effect on atom placement

arrangement of electrons is pretty much responsible for many physical and chemical properties of the element

ionic/covalent compounds

ionic compounds: takes oppositely charged bonds close together; either gains or loses an electron
covalent compounds: bond that forms between nonmetal atoms when they share electrons
both: form compounds after bonding

compounds/molecules

compounds: pure substances that contain two or more elements
molecules: neutral particles formed when atoms share electrons

atom

a small particle that makes up most types of matter

matter

anything that takes up space and has mass

solid

matter with definite shape and volume; has tightly packed particles that move mainly by vibrating

liquid

matter with a definite volume but no definite shape that can flow from one place to another

viscosity

a liquid's resistance to flow

gas

matter that does not have a definite shape or volume; has particles that move at high speeds in all directions

surface tension

the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid

energy

the ability to do work or cause change

thermal energy

the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles in a material

temperature

a measure of the average value of the kinetic energy of the particles in a material

heat

movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at lower temperature

melting

change of matter from a solid state to a liquid state

freezing

change of matter from a liquid state to a solid state

vaporization

change of matter from a liquid state to a gas

condensation

change of matter from a gas to a liquid state

force

a push or pull

pressure

force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted
P = F/A

buoyant force

upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid

Pascal's principle

states that when a force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid

Archimedes' principle

states that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

states of matter and arrangement of particles

solid: matter with definite shape and volume; their particles vibrate in place and keep their shape and volume maintained.. because a solid has a specific shape, the particles make sure that that the shape and volume is the same
liquid: matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape; the particles stay close together, but are free to move past one another... because a liquid has a definite volume, it must have the same weight; whereas because it has no specific shape, the particles can move around a little bit
gas: matter that doesn't have a definite shape or volume; the particles in a gas move at high speeds in all directions... because a gas has no definite volume or shape, the particles are free to do pretty much whatever they want

thermal energy/temperature

thermal energy: the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the particles in a material
temperature: a measure of the average value of the kinetic energy of the particles in a material
comparison: both use kinetic energy

changes of thermal energy/changes of state

thermal energy: depends on the amount of the substance and the kinetic energy of particles in the substance; during changes of state, the temperature of the substance stays the same
changes of state: vaporization is change from the liquid to gaseous state; condensation is the change from gaseous state to the liquid state; sublimation is the process of a substance going from the solid to gas state without ever being in the liquid state
both: depend on the amount of the substance

floating/sinking

water pressure increases with depth; the pressure pushing up on the bottom of the object is greater than the pressure pushing down on it because the bottom of the object is greater than on the top; if the buoyant force is equal to the weight of an object, the object will float; if the buoyant force is less than the weight of an object, the object will sink

pressure transmission through fluids

when a force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid
a good example of Pascal's principle is hydraulic systems using this principle to increase force; the force applied to the piston (left) increases the pressure within the fluid; that increase in pressure is transmitted to the piston (right); if both pistons have the same area, the force on one piston will be equal to the other; but, if the one on the right has a greater surface area, the resulting force will be greater. The same pressure multiplied by a larger area equals greater force
the formula for pressure is: pressure = force/area (P = F/A)
the formula for force is: force = pressure x area (F = P x A)

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set