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Social Stratification

a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy

social mobility

a change in position within the social hierarchy

caste system

social stratification based on ascription, or birth

class system

social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement

meritocracy

social stratification based on personal merit

status consistency

the degree of consistency in a person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality

structural social mobility

a shift in he social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society than to individual efforts

ideology

cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality

Davis-Moore Thesis

the assertion that social stratification exists in every society because it has beneficial consequences for the operation of society

capitalists

people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits

proletarians

working people who sell their labor for wages

alienation

the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness

blue-collar occupations

lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor

white-collar occupations

higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental labor

Socioeconomic Status (SES)

a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality

conspicuous consumption

buying and using products with an eye to the "statement" they make about social position

income

earnings from work or investments

wealth

the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts

intragenerational social mobility

a change in social position occurring during a person's lifetime

intergenerational social mobility

upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents

relative poverty

the deprivation of some people in relation to those who have more

absolute poverty

a deprivation of resources that is life-threatening

feminization of poverty

the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor

global stratification

patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole

high-income countries

the richest nations with the highest overall standards of living

middle-income countries

nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole

low-income countries

nations with a low standards of living in which most people are poor

colonialism

the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations

neocolonialism

a new form of global power relationships that involves not direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations

multinational corporation

a large business that operates in many countries

Modernization Theory

a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations

Dependency Theory

a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitations of poor nations by right ones

gender

the personal traits abd social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male

gender stratification

the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women

matriarchy

a form of social organization in which females dominate males

patriarchy

a form of social organization in which males dominate females

sexism

the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other

gender roles

attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex

minority

any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates

intersection theory

the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage

sexual harassment

comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated, and unwelcome

feminism

the advocacy of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism

race

a socially constructed category of people who share biologucally transmitted traits that members of a society consider important

ethnicity

a shared cultural heritage

minority

any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates

prejudice

a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people

stereotype

an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category

racism

the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another

scapegoat

a person or category of people, typically with little power, whom other people unfairly blame for their own troubles

discrimination

unequal treatment of various categories of people

institutional prejudice and discrimination

bias built into the operation of society's institutions

pluralism

a state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing

assimilation

the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture

miscegenation

biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories

segregation

the physical and social separation of categories of people

genocide

the systematic killing of one category of people by another

social institution

a major sphere of social life, or societal subsystem, organized to meet human needs

economy

the social institution that organizes a society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services

postindustrial economy

a productive system based on service work and high technology

primary sector

the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment

secondary sector

the part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods

tertiary sector

the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods

global economy

economic activity that crosses national borders

capitalism

an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned

socialism

an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned

welfare capitalism

an economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs

state capitalism

an economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closely with the government

profession

a prestigious white-collar occupation that requires extensive formal education

politics

the social institution that distributes power, sets a society's goals, and makes decisions

power

the ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others

government

a formal organization that directs the political life of a society

authority

power that people perceive as legitimate rather than coercive

routinization of charisma

the transformation of charismatic authority into some combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority

monarchy

a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation

democracy

a political system that gives power to the people as a whole

authoritarianism

a political system that denies the people participation in government

totalitarianism

a highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people's lives

welfare state

a system of government agencies and programs that provides benefits to the population

pluralist model

an analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest groups

power-elite model

an analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich

Marxist political-economy model

an analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society's economic system

political revolution

the overthrow of one political system in order to establish another

terrorism

acts of violence or the thread of violence used as a political strategy by an individual or a group

war

organized, armed conflict among the people of two or more nations, directed by their governments

military-industrial complex

the close association of the federal government, the military, and defense indurstires

Sex

biological distinction between females and males

primary sex characterisitics

genitals, organs used for reproduction

secondary sex characteristics

bodily development, not genitals, females wide hips, breasts, lower voice

gender

is an element of culture and refers to the personal traits and patterns of behavior that a culture attaches to being female or male

intersexual people

people whose bodies (including genitals) have both female ad male characteristics (same as hermaphrodite)

Transexuals

people who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other

incest taboo

a norm forbidding seual relations or marriage between certain relatives

sexual counterrevoltion

conservative call for a return to family values and a change from sexual freedom back toward the sexual responsibility that had been valued by earlier generations.

sexual orientation

a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person

heterosexuality

sexual attraction to someone of the other sex

homosexuality

sexual attraction to someone of the same sex

bisexuality

sexual attraction to people of both sexes

asexuality

no sexual attraction to people of either sex

homophobia

discomfort over close personal interaction with people though to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual

pornography

sexually explicit material intended to cause sexual arousal

prostitution

selling of sexual services

Rape

expression of power, a violent act, that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or control another person

queer theory

growing body of research findings that challenges the heterosexual bias in US Society

heterosexism

a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as queer

abortion

deliberate termination of pregnancy

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