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Ice Age

Extended period when glaciers covered most of the North American
Continent.

corn

Staple crop that formed the economic foundation of Native American
Civilizations

Chico Canyon

Important ancient Anasazi Indian center in New Mexico that included a
pueblo of six hundred interconnected rooms.

Portugal

First European nation to send explorers around the west coast of
Africa.

Mali

Flourishing West African Kingdom that had a major Islamic university
in the city of Timbuktu.

Indians

Mistaken term that the first European explorers gave to American lands
because of the false belief that they were off the coast of Asia

horse

Animal introduced by Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life
on the Great Plains

smallpox

one of the major European diseases that devastated Native
American populations after 1492.

syphilis

Sexually transmitted disease originating in the Americans that was
transmitted and spread among Europeans after 1492.

Treaty of Tordesillas

Treaty that proclaimed a Spanish title to lands in the Americas by
dividing them with Portugal

Tenochtitlan

Wealthy and populous capital of the Aztec empire

mestizo

Term for a person of mixed European and Indian ancestry

Pepe's Rebellion

A major Pueblo uprising of 1680 caused by Spanish efforts to suppress
the Indians' religious practices.

noche triste

Spanish term for the night of June 30, 1520, when war began between
Aztecs and Spanish, leading to Spanish conquest of Mexico.

Franciscans

Roman Catholic religious order of friars that organized a chain of
missions in California

Ferdinand and Isabella

Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World

Cortes and Pizarro

Spanish conquerors of great Indian civilizations

Lake Bonneville

Inland sea left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake

Dias and da Gama

Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African Coast

Columbus

Italian-born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents

Malinche

Female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortés

Montezuma

Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish Conquerors

Hiawatha

Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy.

St. Augustine

Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory

John Cabot

Italian-born navigator sent by English to explore North American coast in 1498

Junipero Serra

Franciscan missionary who settled California

Bartolome de las Casas

Dominican friar who sympathized with Indians and protested cruel Spanish policies in the New World

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