a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
a series of wars to take the Holy Land from the Muslims
was a time of renewed interest in learning and the arts that lasted from the 14th through 16th centuries. Inspired by classical arts and writing.
structures that carried water for long distances.
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
a period when many christians broke away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churches.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
the belief that people should be loyal to their nation, the people with whom they share land, culture and history
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler. Mass murder that mudered 2/3s of european jews.
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West. Built by the Soviet Union.
Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
us a representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed
the section of Scotland between Glasgow and Edinburgh, named for its high concentration of high-tech companies.
the basic currency shared by the countries of the European Union
A place where various cultures cross paths
the process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units.
nations dominated by another country
in which industries make the goods consumers want to buy.
produced by rural people with traditional lifestyles instead of by professional artists
discrimination against the jewish people