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Female urinary bladder

(5)

Female urethra

(7)

Female pubic symphysis

(6)

Female rectum

(22)

Ovaries

(2)
Paired
Produce ova in follicles
Located lateral to the superior portion of the uterus.

Primary follicle

(2)
Begin forming in puberty

Graafian follicle
(tertiary follicle)

(4)
one produced every 28 days until menopause (age 40-45)
(13/year, approx. 400 in a lifetime)
200x bigger than sperm cell
at birth: 2 million oogonia (potential egg cell)
at puberty: 400,000

Ovum

(8)
If not fertilized in 48 hours after ovulation, the egg will begin to decompose.

Corpus luteum

(6)
Develops from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, following the release of a secondary oocyte from the follicle during ovulation.
Remains in the ovary while the oocyte follows the uterine tube to the uterus.

Uterine tube

(11)
Extend to ovaries
Lined with cilia. Cilia beat constantly to move egg or fluid towards uterus. keeps pathogens from traveling into body cavity
walls made of smooth muscle, egg moves through peristalsis

The egg enters here through the fimbriae and is moved through here by cilia.
Egg must be fertilized in the distal 2/3 of this tube, within 24 hours after ovulation.
Extends from the ovaries(4) to the body of the uterus (1) in the fundus area (10).

Infundibulum

(6)
"funnel-shaped"

Fimbria

(5)
partially encases ovary but not attached
"finger-like"
Cilia on the inner surface will "draw" the ovulated egg into the ciliated uterine tubes

Ampulla

(7)
Intermediate portion of the uterine tube.

Isthmus

(8)
Ampulla (7) leads to this.
A short segment adjacent to uterine wall.

Body of uterus

(1)+

Fundus of uterus

(10)
The superior rounded edge of the uterus.

Cervix

(27)
The narrowed region that leads to the vagina

Endometrium

(15)
inner lining of uterus.
Highly vascular
This section enlarges (thickens) to prepare the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized.
The fertilized egg will implant here (7 days after ovulation)
Forms part of placenta

Myometrium

(13)
Middle (thickest) layer of uterus
made of smooth muscle - longitudinal, circular, oblique
Responsible for uterine contractions
Can contract with 100 lb of force
Stimulated by oxytocin

perimetrium

(14)
Outside lining of the uterus.
Part of parietal peritoneum (lining of abdominal cavity)
retroperitoneal (outside of body cavity)

Vagina

(3)
Birth canal.
Acidic mucus secretions prevent infection
Secretions from resident bacteria (live in birth canal)
Yeast infections sometimes occur after taking anti-biotic because it kills resident bacteria
Hostile to sperm cells

Labium minora

(12)

Labium majora

(11)

Usual site of fertilization

(2)
Takes place in the distal 2/3 of the uterine tube within 12-24 hours after ovulation.
Upon ovulation, the egg will continue to the uterus, It takes about 1 week for the egg to reach the endometrial lining.

Morula

(5)
Around day 4

Blastocyte

(6)
about day 6

Implantation

(10)
About day 7

Fertilization

Sperm cells exit male's urethra.
Sperm cells enter vagina.
Sperm cells pass through the cervical os (21) of the uterus.
Sperm cells pass through the uterine cavity (2)
Sperm cells enter the proximal portion of the uterine tube (11) and then travel to the distal portion to encounter the egg.
If an egg is present, fertilization could occur.

Must take place in distal portion of uterine tube to allow time (7 days) for fertilized egg to become blastocyst before implanting in uterine wall.

Prostatitis

Due to a bacterial infection. Inflammation may occur, causing a constriction of the utrethra, making urination difficult.

Syphilis

Caused by a spirochete bacterium, treponema pallidum.
3 stages:
1. Primary syphilis: A chancre appears at the site of infection (penis or vagina) 2-6 weeks after infection. It disappears 4-6 weeks after appearing.

2. Secondary syphilis: Syphilis reappears a chancres in other parts of the body. It spreads via the lymphatics. Lymph nodes enlarge and palms and soles show signs of lesions.

3. Tertiary syphilis: Can manifest after 5 years in the vasa vasorum of the aorta or in the nervous system. More than 80% of tertiary syphilis cases become syphilic aortitis. 10% become neurosyphilitic.

Gonorrhea

Caused by bacterium neisseria gonorrhoeae. Causes a purulent urethral discharge.
Left untreated, may result scarring from the bacteria entering the:
(Males) urethra and the vas deferens.
(females) Uterine tubes and ovaries.

Organisms grow pili or finbrae that allow them to adhere to body tissues.

Ovarian cancer

Many cases due to a mutant tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome #17. Most tumors are cystic. 25% are malignant and the 5 year survival rate is 70%.

Endometriosis

A condition where the cells that make up the inside lining of the uterus begin to grow somewhere besides in the endometrial region. it is thought that during menstruation, some of the cells may "backwash' into the uterine tubes and begin to grow on the ovaries or on the outside of the uterus itself. These calls can grow anywhere within the peritonieal region. In some cases the cells ahve found their way to the thoracic cavity and even to the sinus cavities of the skull.

Broad ligament

(11)
Extends from the wall of the pelvic cavity on one side to the uterus (where it splits to form over the anterior side and posterior side of the uterus) to the other pelvic cavity. It completely envelopes the uterus.

made of 3 regions:
1. Mesometrium
2. Mesovarium (2)
3. Mesosalpinx (21)

Mesometrium

Extends inferior to the uterine tube (4) and ovary (9) and connects to the lateral edge of the uterus (10)

Mesovarium

(2)
Extends from the ovary (9) to the uterine tubes (4) and envelopes the ovaries.

Mesosalpinx

Envelopes the uterine tubes (4)

Uterosacral ligament

(12)
Extends from the uterus (10) to the anterior face of the sacrum.

Round ligament

(16)
Extends from uterus (in the uterine tube area) to the external genitalia

Cardinal ligament

Extends from the base of the uterus and vagina to the walls of the pelvis.

Suspensory ligament

(12)
Extends from the lateral edge of the ovary to the pelvic wall.

Ovarian ligament

(15)
Extends from the medial edge of the ovary to the uterus (about the area of the uterine tubes)

External os

(25)
Opening into the uterus.

Secondary follicle

(3)
Fluid begins to form around ova

Mitosis

zygote has 46 chromosomes
23 from sperm
23 from ova
All cells of the body have same # of chromosomes (cloning)

Games

egg and sperm cells

Gemetogenesis

meiosis - reduction division
Occurs in:
Testes - spermatogenesis
Ovaries - oogenesis

oogenesis

Occurs to only 1 cell at a time
Once every 28 days in the ovary, from puberty to menopause.

Puberty (females)

10-15 years

menopause

40-45 years

Fraternal twins

2 eggs released
both fertilized
can be different sex, different DNA
separate placentas
separate amniotic membrane

Identical twins

1 egg fertilized by one sperm cell
Cell divides into 2 identical cells
same placenta and amniotic membrane
same sex, DNA

Corona radiata

(7)
"radiating crown"
protects/surrounds ovum
sperm cell must dissolve this to reach the egg.
One sperm does not have enough enzyme to break through, requires many sperm
Once sperm enters a chemical change occurs around egg, preventing any other sperm from entering.
If 2 sperm enter at same time, cell won't divide, too many chromosomes - cell dies

Ovulation

(8)
Rupture of follicle - caused by high concentration of LH hormone
Ovum swept into uterine tube by ciliary action
Ova surrounded by protective cells (corona radiata) that must be disolved by sperm
Before ovulation: follicle cells secrete estrogen
After ovulation: follicle cells secrete progesterone

Corpus luteum

(6)
The corpus luteum, which means yellow body in Latin, is what is left of the follicle after a woman ovulates. During the follicular phase of a woman's cycle, several follicles develop under the influence of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone). Each follicle contains an egg. In a typical cycle only one egg will become mature enough for ovulation. When a woman ovulates the egg will burst from the follicle. Then what is left of the follicle will become the corpus luteum. The luteal phase, named after the corpus luteum, is the second half of a woman's menstrual cycle. The luteal phase begins after ovulation and continues until menstruation occurs.

Progesterone

hormone that inhibits FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Active ingredient in birth control pills
Chemically puts woman in pregnant condition

Produced in the ovaries (to be specific, after ovulation in the corpus luteum), the adrenal glands (near the kidney), and, during pregnancy, in the placenta.
Stored in adipose (fat) tissue

FSH
(follicle stimulating hormone)

stimulates oogenesis
When this is high, menses begin

secreted by the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland). Regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body.

This hormone and Luteinizing hormone (LH) act synergistically in reproduction. (one goes up the other goes down)

Placenta

Barrier to prevent rejection of embryo
After 1st trimester it becomes and endocrine gland that helps maintain pregnancy (along with corpus luteum)

Estrogen

Primary female sex hormone
Produced primarily by developing follicles in the ovaries, the corpus luteum, and the placenta.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of this in the ovaries.

follicle development stimulates production of this (before ovulation)
Increase in this causes decrease in FSH and increase in LH

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Produced by the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland).
In females: Rise in this hormone triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum.
In males, (it is called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH), it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone.

Oxytocin

pituitary hormone - secreted from neurohypophysis
stimulates uterine contraction
stimulates lactation
neutralized by testosterone in males

menstruation

Day 1: Menses begin (FSH high, LH low)
Day 4/5: Menses stop
Somewhere between Day 5 & Day 15: Follicle developes
Stimulates estrogen production (Causes: FSH drops, LH increases)
Day 15: Ovulation (LH high, FSH low)
Day 18/19: Corpus luteum forms
Produces increase in progesterone (causes: FSH drop?)
Somewhere between day 19 & Day 28: Corpus luteum breaks down (no implantation)
Progesterone drops (causes FSH high, LH low)
Cycle begins again

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