Literary Devices I: Short Story Devices

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Literary Devices I: Short Story Devices

protagonist

main character

antagonist

the villain of the story

flat character

2 dimensional character; simple

round character

complicated character

static character

does not change through out the story

stock character

cartoon; prototype character; cliche character

symbol

an object that stands for an idea

allegory

when the whole story is a metaphor

allusion

a reference to something outside the story

personification

when an object is given human characteristics

simile

compares; uses "like" or "as"

metaphor

compares; does not use "like" or "as"

dialogue

a character tells us

dramatic method

narrator shows us

exposition

the narrator tells us

dialect

regional speech patterns

theme

general idea; prevailing conflicts

mood

emotional atmosphere created for the reader

tone

attitude that the narrator has towards the characters

dramatic irony

audience knows something that the characters do not

situational irony

when the author sets you up for something and something different happens

cosmic irony

when the universe plays tricks

verbal irony

when a speakers says one thing but means the opposite (sarcasm)

socratic irony

pretending to be naive

exposition

describes setting or character

initial conflict

the main conflict of the story

rising action

action that contributes to the conflict

climax

building to the finale of the story

falling action

the result of the climax

denouement

the solution/resolution

foreshadowing

hints on what will happen next in the story

chronological order

a series of events in the way they happen

flashback

a scene from a past event that had happened

in media res

in the middle of the story

deus ex machina

a plot device where by a seemingly unsolved problem is resolved by introducing a new character, event, ability, or detail to the story

dynamic character

the character that changes

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