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The name and function of the 12 cranial nerves

I

Olfactory

Sensory

What categories does Nerve I have?

Sensory: smell

What does Nerve I do?

II

Optic

III

Oculomotor

IV

Trochlear

V

Trigeminal

VI

Abducens

VII

Facial

VIII

Vestibulocochlear

IX

Glossopharyngeal

X

Vagus

XI

Accessory

XII

Hypoglossal

Sensory

What categories does Nerve II have?

Motor, Parasympathetic

What categories does Nerve III have?

Motor

What categories does Nerve IV have?

Sensory, Motor

What categories does Nerve V have?

Motor

What categories does Nerve VI have?

Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic

What categories does Nerve VII have?

Sensory

What categories does Nerve VIII have?

Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic

What categories does Nerve IX have?

Sensory, Motor, Parasympathetic

What categories does Nerve X have?

Motor

What categories does Nerve XI have?

Motor

What categories does Nerve XII have?

Sensory: vision

What does Nerve II do?

Motor: contracts medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye.
Parasympathetic: contracts intrinsic muscles of eye for near vision and pupil constriction

What does Nerve III do?

Motor: contracts superior oblique muscle(eye)

What does Nerve IV do?

Sensory: touch from face/upper cranium
Motor: moves mandible (chewing; speech)

What does Nerve V do?

Motor: contracts lateral rectus muscle (eye)

What does Nerve VI do?

Sensory: taste(anterior 2/3 of tongue)
Motor: facial expression
Parasympathetic: salivary glands; lacrimal glands

What does Nerve VII do?

Sensory: hearing and balance.

What does Nerve VIII do?

Sensory: taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue)
Motor: swallowing
Parasympathetic: salivary glands.

What does Nerve IX do?

Sensory: taste; sensory from thoracic and abdominal organs
Motor: tongue and throat
Parasympathetic: decreases heart rate; increases digestion

What does Nerve X do?

Motor: contract sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

What does Nerve XI do?

Motor: contracts extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of tongue

What does Nerve XII do?

Olfactory (I)

Optic (II)

Oculomotor (III)

Trochlear (IV)

Trigeminal (V)

Abducens (VI)

Facial (VII)

Vestibulocochlear (VIII)

Glossopharyngeal (IX)

Accessory (XI)

Hypoglossal (XII)

Medulla Oblongata

Where does Vestibulocochlear (VIII) originate?

Loss of hearing, and issues with sense of balance, vertigo.

What happens when you damage Vestibulocochlear (VIII)?

Medulla Oblongata

Where does Glossopharyngeal (IX) originate?

Loss of "gag reflex"

What happens when you damage Glossopharyngeal (IX)?

Medulla Oblongata

Where does Vagus (X) originate?

Sometimes "overactive", and affects the stomach, which causes the stomach to overproduce acid. This can lead to ulcers.

What happens when you damage Vagus (X)?

Medulla Oblongata

Where does Accessory (XI) originate?

Shoulder drop, generally due to the fault in Trapezius.

What happens when you damage Accessory (XI)?

Medulla Oblongata

Where does Hypoglossal (XII) originate?

Tongue cannot stick out tongue straight when asked to stick it out.

What happens when you damage Hypoglossal (XII)?

Pons

Where does Trigeminal (V) originate?

Trigeminal Neuralgia (tic douloureux): When, for an unknown reason, the trigeminal nerve freaks out and causes intense, random excruciating.

What happens when you damage Trigeminal (V)?

Pons

Where does Abducens (VI) originate?

Eye cannot move to the side, or laterally.

What happens when you damage Abducens (VI)?

Pons

Where does Facial Nerve (VII) originate?

Bell's palsy: Cannot smile on one half of the body, taste is altered, facial expression inactive on one side, eyes may also start to dry out. Generally goes away, but we don't really know what causes it.

What happens when you damage Facial Nerve (VII)?

Midbrain

Where does Olfactory (I) originate?

Loss of the sense of smell.

What happens when you damage Olfactory (I)?

Midbrain

Where does Optic (II) originate?

Loss of vision out of one eye, if you cover up the non-damaged eye they can see nothing.

What happens when you damage Optic (II)?

Midbrain

Where does Oculomotor (III) originate?

Difficulty in moving at least one eye, droopy eyelids, abducted a little bit in general, since lateral rectus is still working. Also generally have pupil dilation.

What happens when you damage Oculomotor (III)?

Midbrain

Where does Trochlear (IV) originate?

Downward gaze of the eye, head will often be tilted simply to compensate for the weakness and the downward gaze. Find it rather tricky when going down stairs.

What happens when you damage Trochlear (IV)?

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