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Which of the following defense mechanisms involves directing unacceptable impulses at a less threatening target?

displacement

Of all the big five personality traits, _____ is probably the most important in health and longevity issues.

conscientiousness

Modern criminal profiling is based on the personological approach of _____.

Henry Murray

Walter Mischel's view of situationism states that _____.

personality varies considerably from one context to another.

According to Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory, individuals who are high on the
behavioral inhibition system (BIS) ______.

are more susceptible to negative mood

Which of the following neurotransmitters is associated with extraversion?

dopamine

The Rorschach inkblot test is a(n)_____ test of personality.

projective

Of the following factors, _____ is the strongest predictor of whether a person will experience a mental disorder.

cognitive style

Although Carol has been experiencing persistent anxiety for the past 6 months, she has been unable to specify the cause or source of her nervous feelings. Carol likely suffers from _____.

generalized anxiety disorder

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder?

Depressed arousal and fatigue

Depressed people tend to have low levels of which neurotransmitters?

serotonin and norepinephrine

_____ has the highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder.

anorexia nervosa

Which of the following is NOT considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia?

flat affect

In 1973 Rosenhan conducted a study in which eight healthy individuals were committed to a psychiatric hospital. What did the results of this study demonstrate?

Being labeled with a mental disorder creates a self-fulfilling prophecy that changes the way mental health professionals evaluate and treat you.

Which of the following biological interventions for changing behavior is used LEAST often?

electroconclusive therapy

Lithium is commonly used to treat ______.

bipolar disorder

The main goal of psychoanalysis is to ______.

provide clients with insight into their unconscious conflicts.

According to Freudian dream interpretation, the obvious content of a person's dream hides the true meaning of the dream, called the ______ content.

latent

Aversive conditioning can be an effective treatment for _____.

smoking, overeating, and drinking alcohol.

______ suggests that psychological disorders are the result of irrational and self-defeating beliefs.

rational-emotive behavior therapy

Validation, reframing, structural change, and detriangulation are techniques commonly used in _____.

family therapy

The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of inner dispositions upon another's behavior is called ______.

the fundamental attribution error

_____ is the tension that arises when people realize that their behavior is inconsistent with their attitudes.

cognitive dissonance

Despite evidence to the contrary, Denise thinks she is smarter than most of the people in her class. Denise's unfounded attitude about herself is an example of a(n) _____.

positive illusions

According to _____, people who have first agreed to a small request tend to comply later with a larger request

the foot-in-the-door technique

What is the key social emotion involved with altruism?

empathy

You are studying in a quiet but crowded library when you suddenly start coughing. You soon notice others doing the same thing. This is an example of _____.

social contagion

Sherif's Robbers Cave study showed that perceptions of the outgroup are affected by _____.

competitive and cooperative activities

What are Freud's three aspects of psychoanalysis?

Id, Super Ego, and Ego

ID

the pleasure seeker identity

Super EGO

the rule oriented identity

EGO

the balance oriented identity, it mediates conflict between the other two

Carl Jung's collective unconcious

the experiences from which we draw from that are collective and not individual

Propose eight personality types

Introversion, extraversion, thinking, feeling, sensing, intuiting.

-feelers like to "feel" things. For them to be obtainable or tangible
-intuiters have "senses" or go with gut feelings
-combinations of these four with either introvert/extrovert

Alfred Adler

-believed that the source of human striving was to compensate for feelings of inferiority
-Proposed that birth order strongly influences personality: First born, 2nd born, or youngest

Tendencies of Birth order

-most second born's become competitive and ambitious
-first born's are dethroned when another child is born, lingering feelings are established (nostalgia). Also, first borns will seek out positions of authority because they are used to controlling younger siblings in the home.
-youngest children become more spoiled than the other ones.

Abraham Maslow

-believed the focus should be on happy people, and their good characteristics
-created the theory of self-actualization

Characteristics of Self-Actualizers

o Acceptance of self, others, and the world
o Spontaneous and natural
o Non-conformist
o Problem focused, not self-focused
o Freshness of appreciation, they learned how to not let life get stale
o Care for others
o Comfortable with solitude
o "peak" experiences
o sense of humor

Carl Rogers

-Developed Person-Centered Therapy, which focuses on self-discovery

Carl Roger's three key techniques to uncovering true values

o Create an atmosphere of unconditional positive regard
o Non-directive approach
o Reflection of client's feelings

B.F. Skinner

-believed that personality is simply behavior shaped by a person's history of reinforcement and punishment
-this avoids mental causes of behavior and explanatory fictions

Albert Bandura

-believed that personality is formed through observational learning and vicarious reinforcement
-believed that behavior is formed by feelings of self-efficacy

What is self-efficacy

-the belief that we can do something

examples
o The idea of the "little engine that could"...persisting even when it appears impossible.
o This idea can be enforced by giving a child every opportunity to succeed when given a task.,.beginning with easy tasks to succeed at that encourages them that they can have successes in future, harder things.

Who are trait theorists?

-Allport, Costa, and McCrae

Who are psychoanalytic theorists?

-Freud, Jung, and Adler

Who are humanistic theorists?

-Maslow and Rogers

Who are social/behavioral theorists?

-Skinner and Bandura

Abnormal Psychology

-behavior not found in the majority of the population (no value judgement)
-all people are abnormal in some ways (ex. attending lee university, considering most do not attend the school)
-not all "different" is bad

Four general criteria for Abnormality

-Deviance: socially unacceptable
-Distress: personal misery
-Dysfunction: behavioral impairment
-Danger: to self and others

the DSM

-the Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
-A book that holds all the disorders and their symptoms that allows us to determine if a person's malady is diagnostically a disorder

What are the anxiety disorders?

-Panic Disorders
-Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
-Phobias

Panic Disorders

When a person has sudden panic/anxiety attacks

Cued Panic Attacks

when something specific is causing anxiety

Uncued Panic Attacks

when nothing specific causes them, but they simply happen randomly.

Treatment for Panic Disorders

medications

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

persistent thoughts and irresistible impulses/rituals. The only way to get relief from obsession is to act out in some way to distract and relieve the thoughts.

Three Common Examples

• violence (to you, someone you love, or someone else),
• contamination (germiphobia, dirtied hands, etc.)
• doubt (worrying about whether they locked the door, turned off the stove, saying something offensive, etc.)

Have Compulsions to

• Wash (woman washed hands over 500 times a day)
• Count (ceiling tiles, bricks, etc.)
• Check (door locked, etc.)
• Straighten (being perfect and clean)

Treatment

o Is treated with response-prevention therapy, preventing the OCD individual from using response to alleviate obsession
o Also treated with medication

Phobias

Intense, irrational fears

Examples

o Acrophobia-fear of heights
o Claustrophobia-fear of small spaces
o Agoraphobia-fear of going out (reclusion)
o Cynophobia-fear of dogs
o Aquaphobia-fear of water
o Mysophobia-fear of contamination or dirt
o Brontophobia-fear of thunder, fear of storms
o Nycotophobia-fear of darkness/night
o Ophidiophobia-
o Pyrophobia-fear of fire
o Tapophobia-
o Coulrophobia-fear of clowns
o Gephyrophobia-fear of crossing bridges
o Anthrohobia-fear of flowers
o Melissophobia-fear of bees
o Sciophobia-fear of shadows

Mood disorders

-Characterized by disruptive disturbances in mood and emotional state.
-Can be thought of as emotional disorders

Two Main types of mood disorders

Unipolar-fixation at one end of the emotional spectrum
-Depressive (dysphoria)-sadness
-Mani (euphoria)-elatedness, excitedness
-Everything falls in between these two
Bipolar-fluctuation between two emotional poles

Major Depressive Disorder

- the "common cold" of mental illness. Affects 13-20% of the population, twice as common in females. Symptoms must persist two weeks or more.

Emotional Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder

-sadness, emptiness, anhedonia (no joy in life, lose interest in things they used to enjoy), crying spells, feelings of despair, lack of affection for loved ones.

Motivational Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder

-lose desire to participate in life, lack of drive/initiative. They simply "hole-up" and "feel-bad"

Behavioral Symptoms

-less productive, avoid responsibility, lethargic, slowed monotone speech, no eye contact.

Cognitive Symptoms

-negative view of self, feelings of inferiority, inadequacy, guilt, helplessness, pessimism.

Somatic Symptoms

-always sick, tired, eat too much/too little

Dysthymic Disorder

-persistent dysphoric mood, but with fewer and less severe symptoms.

Reactive/Seasonal Depression

-temporary states
-Reactive-caused by traumatic events, and will eventually be turned back
-Seasonal-caused by lowered melatonin levels. Lowering melatonin is good, and used to allow sleep during darkness, but this is negative in large quantities for those who are sensitive to those level changes

Bipolar Disorder

extreme mood swings; manic episode followed by depressive "crash".

Manic Periods are Characterized by

• Extreme elation and excitement
• Impulsive behavior
• Buying things you cannot afford
• Marrying the first person you see
• Driving his car into a hole he dug, burying it
• Flight of Ideas
• Hyperactivity

Cyclothymic Disorder

less severe form of bipolar disorder

Suicide Statistics

• 8th Leading cause of death in USA, but the 3rd leading cause of deaths in teens
• 30,000 suicides annually in the U.S.
• 600,000 attempts (20 attempts for each suicide)
• 2/3 of all "completers" are male
• ¾ of all "attempters" are female (parasuicide: appears like a suicide attempt, but is really more a cry for attention)
• Males use violent means (gun, razor, noose; methods that are generally more certain)
• Females use less violent means (pills, poison, garage w/ carbon monoxide)
• Highest rate among older, white males

Warning Signs of Suicide

o Suicidal talk
o Prior attempts
o Depression or emotional problems
o Substance abuse
o Loneliness/living alone
o Has experienced a series of stressful events recently
o Prolonged illness
o Economic/work problems
o Relationship problems

What can we learn from suicide notes of why suicide occurs?

• Young people-self blame/hostility/relationship problems
• Middle Age-unable to cope with stresses and responsibilities because of a loss of something (marriage, job, loved one, overwhelmed by financial burden etc.)
• Elderly-illness, disability, loneliness

Schizophrenia

-Defined as a deterioration of functioning characterized by sever distortions of thought, perception and mood, by bizarre behavior, and by social withdrawal.
-Diagnosed when two or more of the following symptoms must be present for at least a month.
-Symptoms often delayed until late adolescence

Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

• Delusions-persecution, grandeur, reference.
• Hallucinations
• Disorganized thinking and speech (someone who is chronically ill especially, also what they're saying does not match their emotion)
• Disorganized or catatonic behavior (meaning they completely withdraw into themselves and disconnect from the world.)

Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

-reduced functioning in some way (absence of behavior...no speech, action, flat affect in voice, etc.)
-1/3 have one episode and then recover
-1/3 have periodic episodes, periodic recovery and reentrance into issue
-1/3 Chronic schizophrenia, continue in it

Dissociative Identity Disorder

-a.k.a Multiple Personality Disorder
-two or more distinct personalities in one body

Characteristics of DID

• Subpersonalities are called alters
• Core personality is referred to as the host
• All of the alters differ from one another

Five most frequently seen multiple personalities

o Children
o Protectors
o Expressers of forbidden impulses
o Those based on loved ones
o Avengers of past abuses

Relation to abuse

-Up to 95% of all DID cases are linked to severe abuse in early childhood (does not mean that any abused child will develop this disorder, it is merely a commonality)
-Thought to be a coping mechanism to dissociate from abuse. Initially is a "happy place", but develops by fracturing personality into other aspects.

Treated

-with therapy to reintroduce personalities to one another. The goal is to fuse fragmented personalities back together.

Diagnostic Tree

• Depressed, elevated, or irritable mood? (yes or no?)
• If yes, is it due to physiological condition? (yes or no?)
• If yes, it is an organic disorder
• If no, is it due to effects of substance
• If yes, it is substance induced mood disorder.

Client's Rights

• Informed consent- informed of all potential risks and beliefs
• Confidentiality-info stored in therapeutic relationship is privileged communication unless there is
o Abuse to children, elderly, or handicapped
o Potential danger to client or others (duty to warn)

Insanity defense stems from

-M'Naghten's Rule (1843)
-created when a british man shot prime minister peel's secretary

What is the Mental status exam-evaluation of the clients psychological and physical functioning?

• Appearance and behavior
• Thought process
• Affect and mood
• Insight and judgment

Clinical Interview

-gather detailed info and determine presenting problem.

Social Psychology

-Studies relationships; the dynamics of people in interaction with each other.

First Impressions are influenced by

o Reputation (before meeting)
o Stereotypes (impressions that exist about a group of people)
o Primary effect (positive vs. negative hearing first)
o Recency effect (the tendency to carry over feelings to a new relationship from the most recent relationship-romantic etc.)
o Non-verbal aspects

Non-verbal first impression assessments include

• Physical attractiveness (halo effect), goes both directions
• Body Language
• Gender
• Age
• Dress
• Race

discongruence

-When we form an attitude about someone, and expect certain interactions to conform to our attitude, but then our interactions do not meet our expectations

How do people deal with discongruence

• Assume our first impression was wrong, and change impression
• Assume our first was correct, and that the behavior is only a fluke

Halo Effect

-when someone looks attractive, it makes us develop a better impression of them
-when someone looks unattractive, it makes us develop a not as great opinion of them.

Personal Space

-called Proxemics
-the rules of person space that can be identifies into four basic zones of distance

What are the zones of personal space

• Intimate distance- 18 inches and closer
o Intimate interaction; reserved for a select few
o When people who we don't want to be in this zone come into it, it is upsetting.
• Person distance- 18 inches-4 feet
o Comfortable interaction; within arm's reach
• Social distance- 4-12 feet
o Casual, impersonal interaction; no touching
• Public distance- more than 12 feet
o Formal interaction; lectures, sermons

Conformity

modifying ones behavior to be consistent with a group

Level's of conformity

o Perceptual level-actually saw It that way
o Judgmental level-thought misunderstood
o Action level- didn't want to be different.

Who first demonstrated the strength of group influence?

-Sherif (1935)
-Asch (1951)

Obedience

the tendency to follow commands

Migram's classic experiment (1961)

-showed how far people will go in the name of obedience

o The teacher was always the one being tested.
o Learner was the actor, and told to get the first couple right, but then get the rest wrong. The teacher would then be placed with the authority to punish with a shock (15-450 volt possibility)...ultimately, the experiment was set up to be shocked 30 times.
o Original study-26 of 40 subjects (65%) shocked all the way to the end.
o Followed a script, groaning after a certain number, pounding on wall after another certain number, prompts were used to keep going from the experimenter...they would always look to the experimenter. They listened to the experimenter regardless.
o Teachers would break out in a sweat, start crying and shaking, and be highly disturbed, but would still be obedient to punish.
o With learner in the same room- 40% obedience
o Holding Learner's hand on shock plate-30%
o The one constant through all scenarios was the experimenter was in the room
o When the experimenter was taken out of the room, the number dropped to the lowest of all-22% (dropped 43% from original)

Passivity

being too submissive or meek

Bystander Apathy

unwilling to get involved (Jenny, attacker...laying dying in the doorway of the apartment and no one came out to get her...the criminal finished the job...38, when asked, said they heard her but didn't help because they figured someone else would help.)
-the more people around, the less responsible the bystander feels
-3 out of 17 people stopped to help Dr. Fishe in his social experiment when choking in the hallway

What experiment demonstrated the power of the situation

-Stanford Prison Experiment (1971)

Social roles of the Stanford Prison Experiment

• Prisoners-wore chains, prison garb, stayed in cells, given a number-stipped of identity
• Guards-wore uniforms, dark sunglasses, carried clubs, given authority.
• 2 week experiment called off in 6 days due to dramatic transformation in the guards in prisoners that made their safety compromised.

Depersonalizaion

-guards treated non-prisoners like prisoners
-Prisoners and guards conformed behavior to expectations of social roles-subsumed personality to "become the part"

Allport's Six Common Traits

1.) Theoretical Trait: thinking part
2.) Economic Trait: practical part
3.) Social Trait:communal part
4.) Esthetic Trait: artistic part
5.) Political Trait: power part
6.) Religious trait: spiritual part

Gordon Allport

-describes traits as personal characteristics that remain fairly consistent across situations.
-started with 18,000 words, and narrowed it down to six basic common traits, but in vary amounts

Biological Therapies

-Electro-convulsive, psychosurgery, psychotropic drugs
-Oldest form of treatment; tried to "beat the devil" out of people thought to be possessed - thought to be useful b/c they would change their behavior in order to avoid the treatment

ECT

-shock treatment
-now used to treat depression
-110 volts for ½ second, lasts about 2 weeks
-not recommended for older people
-may have heart attacks

Psychosurgery

-not just lobotomy, when they cut connection to frontal lobe, became more passive, couldn't do anything for themselves
-includes any type of corrective surgery on the brain, -now done more precisely

Psychotropic Drugs

-fix chemical imbalances
-treat problems ranging from anxiety to schizophrenia

Intra-psychic Therapies

-Past focused, future focused, cognitive
-problem is seen as psychological in nature; work to change attitudes and thinking style (counseling, talking therapy, change attitudes and thoughts)

Past focused

-uncovering past problems and resolving conflicts (Psychoanalysis) tend to be long term

Future Focused

-help person reach goals and achieve aspirations (Humanistic)
-believe you can't change the past
-focus on what you can change

Cognitive

-correct the way a person thinks and responds (Cognitive Therapies)
-irrational beliefs and thinking patterns (i.e. expecting perfection of oneself, wanting affirmation from everyone, expecting everything to be a certain way, dwelling on unpleasant things, avoiding responsibilities and difficulties, continuing the influence of one incident)

Social/Behavioral Therapies

-Group Therapy, behavior modification
-Work from outside in; restructure environment and change behavior

Group Therapy

-social support and beneficial interaction ( J.H. Pratt first gathered a group to inform which led to them sharing their successes)

Behavior Modification

-token economy, systematic desensitization, implosive therapy, modeling, aversion therapy

Costa and McCrae's Big Five

-Openness:
-Conscientiousness
-Agreeableness
-Extraversion
-Neuroticism

Freud's 3 levels to the mind

-conscious, preconscious, unconscious
-Traumatic events stored in unconscious
-Believed that psych. problems could have an unconscious origin

Techniques used by Freud

-Dream analysis and free association

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