Describe some of the geography of Latin America.
South America was settled by people from the Iberian Peninsula which is made up of Spain and Portugal. Because Spain and Portugal are Latin in origin, South America is often refered to as Latin America. The Andes mountain range is the longest uninterupted mountian range in the world and the Amazon is the 2nd longest river in the world.
Describe the challenge of the Portugese and Spanish rule, their early rule and the importance of creoles.
It was very hard for the Spanish and Portugese to rule because they were seperated by miles of ocean. The rulers of Spain and Portugal had absolute power in their lands and they did that in the new colonies even. At first the strict rule worked but then as the colonies grew it was hard for the settlers to wait for the King's decesion because they needed the answer immediatly. Creoles were people of pure Spanish or Portugese decent that were ignored. The king only allowed those who were born in the mother countries to rule. Even if the creoles were decendants of nobel families the had no right to rule which led to a revolt.
Explain the portugese rule in their colonies, including donatarios, governor generals and Thome de Souza.
Portugese land was divided into 12 Captaincies. Each captaincy was ruled and owned by nobles called donatarios. They had control of the land and their job was to colonize, defend, and tax their captaincy and send extra money to Portugal. King John bought the captaincy of Bahia and eventually bought back all the captaincies. He appointed a governor-general in the place of the donatario. Eventually Portugal regained control of all of Brazil. Thome de Souza was the first governor-general of Brazil. He established Sao Salvador as the capital of Bahia. Future governor-generals were not always honorable men. They would came for a short time and get all the money they could. Government officials were poorly paid which led to alot of coruption. Portugal had a colony 80 times it's size for 300 years!
Explain the Spanish rule in their colonies, including the council of Indies, viceroys, audiencias, and peninsulares.
All laws and policies for the Spanish colonies came directly from Spain. The Spanish established the Council of the Indies to oversee its colonies. The King appointed a viceroy, which was controlled by the Council, to rule each colony. Once they realized that the land was to big to be ruled by distant viceroys alone, they divided the land into audiencia that was administered by a Spanish lawyer who presided over a court. Spanards who were born in Spain were called peninisulares and they held most of the government positions. Creoles only had a small role in the government, even though some were rich. Roman Catholic clergy also held positions in the government.
Describe the way the Spanish and Portugese treated their colonies economically.
They had trouble managing the production of goods. The mother country determined the price, quantitiy, adn types of goods that could be produced and sold. The tax was high to goods being exported and charged high prices for goods being imported.
Explain the introduction of black African Slaves to Latin America.
The Indian population was so reduced by disease that the African slavves replaced them. Conquistadaors brought their slaves so those slaves were already ingrained in Latin culture so they were called "black white men". At first blacks were used to help direct Indian laborers. Eventually, as slaves were brought from Africa and Indians and mestizos were used as free laborers the balance shifted, and teh blacks were held in very low esteem.
List and explain the natural resources that were developed in Latin America.
The most important exports of Latin Americ were refined silver adn sugar. One of the most important resouces of South America was the land itself. People came to Latin America because it was very crowded in Europe.
Describe the influence of the Catholic Church and the Jesuits.
The Catholic Church had great control over the Spanish and Indian population.Because the Catholic Church stood up for the Indians, the Church got more loyalty from the Indians than the Indians gave the Spanish or Portugese. The Jesuits was the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits came and established missions and the priests worked towards converting the Indians in these missions. The Jesuits were not liked because the Indians liked to work for them, the usually had lots of property, they did not have to pay tax, and they recieved tithes. Finally the landowners got so jealous over profits and power that the Jesuits were expelled from the new world. Expelling the Jesuits was a mistake because their was no conection between the people and the government.
Explain the way the Spanish government treated the Indians, including settlements, encomiendas, and the importance of Bartolome de Las Casas.
The Spanish government only approved of making Cannibals or hostile Indians slaves. The settlers said that they were Hostile and cannibals wether it was true or not. Once the Spanish conquered an area, they moved the Indians into settlements. The settlements had a church, government building, and shops surronded with well-planned locks of houses. This allowed the Church and the government to keep an eye on them. When the Spanish wanted to reward a Conquistador, they gave him an encomienda. An encomienda was an estate that usually had an Indian labor force. With the labor force, the landowner could farm, mine, or manufacture goods for trade or sale. Many conquistadors did not treat the Indians well and they suffered alot.
De Casas was a man who saw the unfair treatment of the Indians and spoke out against them. Through his efforts, the New Laws of 1542 were passed. These laws set up a government that protected the Indians and mestizos from abbuses they had suffered. A mestizo is someone with Indian and Spanish parents. The Laws prohibited making Indians slaves.
Describe life on a Hacienda and life in the city for the wethly and poor.
Latin America did not settle on individual farms because the government did not promote private ownership of land. Wealthy men owned most of the land and they made huge country estates called haciendas. The wealthy land owners were called hacendados and they had complete control over the hacienda. Peons (people who were held in servitude to word off a debt) worked on the hacendados. Hacedendados also forced the natice Indians and African slaves to work. The Indians were treated alittle better and could pass on their house and position to their children. As long as the Hacendados got money, they did not care about the land. Much of the development of South America happened around cities. The center part of the city became the center of trade and society. The welthy built their houses and businesses around the center of town. The wealthy usually had 2 story houses with the 1st floor for business and the 2nd floor for their home. The poor lived in the barrios, or neighborhoods. Free Blacks. mestizos, and Indians lived in the barrios. Apartments were what they wanted but shacks were okay. Families lived in one-room apartments divided in to 2 rooms with a blanket.
Explain the background to the Line of Demarcation, the Line of Demarcation, and the importance of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
When the Spanish discovered the New World, they wanted a monopoly as big as the one Portugal had over the Eastern Trade route. At first Spain was mad because they weren't getting alot from their trade route but then it was okay because the Portugese were not getting alot either. Then Spain found gold in Portugal. Pope Alexander the 6th drew an imaginary line called the line of Demarcation to seperate the territories that the 2 countries owned. Spain got everything to the west. Portugal got everything to the east. The Portugese did not like the line because to explore Africa and get good winds, they had to rick sailing into Spanish water. In a final agreement the line was moved in 1494 by the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Explain the discovery of Brazil and the importance of degredados.
When the line was moved, no one new of Brazil. Pedro Cabral, blown off course, landed on Brazil and claimed it for Portugal. The Portugese were too busy in Africa and India to see in Brazil the things in Brazil that would meet their needs for trade goods. They did explore the coastline and sometimes dropped off a degradado. When the degradados were left on shore, they could see if the Indians were friendly or not. Many times the Indians were friendly and the degredado was brought into Indian society.
Explain the one area of conflict between Spain and Portugal in latin America nad how it was solved.
Once the Line of Demarcation was drawn, the Spanish and Portugese rarely conflicted. The major area of conflict did occur around the Rio de la Plata in present-day Uraguay. Spain was able to settle first in an area in Brazil claimed by Portugal. The conflict was eventually solved in 1777 by the Treaty of San Ildefonso.
Explain the influence of the French, the British, and teh Dutch in Latin America.
The Spanish and Portugese had to deal wit trespasses by the French, Dutch, and English. The French established a foothold in what would later be known as French Guiana. The Dutch and English also sought control of 2 other countries with the name Guiana. Discouraged by the poor inland soil and competition from north America, the Dutch discovered the rich soils on the coastline of Dutch Guiana. The Dutch reclaimed below sea level land with sea walls and dikes and established sugar plantations. The British used the same methods to establish their plantations in British Guiana. Later British Guiana became Guyana and Dutch Guiana became Suriname.
Describe the two problems that Spain's colonies had with Spain and the way that the colonies gained their independence.
The Creoles hated their lack of power in the government and they saw and opportunity to gain control while Spain fought in Europe. The 2 reasons that they were discontent are Spain's control and Classisim. Spain's control. Spanish colonies could only trade with Spanish colonies. Spain did not want its people to hear English of French pholosophers whose ideas led to the revolutions in America. The Spanish secretly passed these ideas and their discontentment by word of mouth ofin written form from person to person. Another problem was extreme classism. There were distinct divisions between Spanish born in Spain, creoles, mesnment or high society for anyone of less than pure Spanish blood. People that were wealthy and thought of badly itizos, and Indians. There was no place in goverwere especially discontent with this class structe. There are two men known athe leaders in the Spanish struggle for independence, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin. Bolivar and his men pushed Spainards out of Venezuela and Columbia. His greates victories were at the battle of Boyaca in Columbia nad the battle for Carabobo in Venezeula. Bolivar wrote San Martin and offered to help the struggle for independence in Peru. Bolivar helpes free Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Chile, Peru, and Venezuela. San Martin was asked by the Argentinian Government to take independence to Peru. He freed Chile first then moved onto Peru. When Bolivar and Martin met, Spain was defeated.
Describe a caudillo.
The new independent South American countries would face many problems. The wealthy land owners took over governents and the governement was no better than Spanish rule. These weak governments were often overthrown by other stronger men called caudillos. Caudillos usually ruled as dictators.
Describe the way Brazil got it independence.
Independence came to Brazil without violence when Napoleon captured Portugal. The Portugese royalty fled to Brazil and declared it the center of the empire. King John brought many changes and made Brazil equal to instead of a ccolony of Portugal. King John returned to Portugal in 1820 and left his son Pedro as regent of Brazil. When King John tried to get back his land from his son in 1822, Pedro refused and declared their independence and he was crowned emporer Pedro the 1st of independent Brazil.