Family Studies Exam

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the text observes that we remain hopeful about family commitment because

families are central to society as an institution and to our everyday lives

traditionally both law and social science specified that the family consisted of people related by

blood marriage, or adoption

The U.S. census bureau defines a family as

two or more persons sharing a household and who are related by blood marriage, or adoption

Throughout much of the twentieth century in America, the __________ family has been considered the traditional family.

nuclear

As families have become less traditional, the legal definition of a family has

become much more flexible

According to the text, in recent years, people have been

postponing marriage

Over the past four decades, fertility in the US has

declined

The text reports that divorce rates

have stabilized, although they remain at high levels

the text concludes that the best way to make decisions about our personal lives is to make them

knowledgeably

Children are _____ likely than the general population or the elderly to be living in poverty

more

Theoretical perspectives or theories can increase our ____ families and family life

understanding of

The climate, soil, plants, and animals are all part of the _____ environment

natural physical-biological

Which of the following theoretical perspectives is directly concerned with the influence of family policy

family ecology

The sequence of single hood, marriage, parenthood, grand parenthood, and widowhood, are a focus of which of the following perspectives?

family systems

The view that the family is an enduring social institution because of the important tasks it performs for society-reproduction, emotional support, socialization of children is the ____ perspective

structure-functional

The ____ perspective looks at the family as a whole; for change to occur, the family system as a whole must change.

family systems

The centeral focus of the feminist perspective is _____ issues.

gender

The ___ perspective argues that hums evolutionary biology affects much of human behavior and, more specifically, many family-related behaviors.

bio social

Representative samples are important to family survey research because they are most likely to

produce the most generalizable figures

Collecting data over a period of years on a particular topic would reflect a

longitudinal study

Jean is attracted to opposite-sex partners. Jean is

heterosexual

Pauline is attracted to persons of either sex. Pauline is

Bisexual

The ____ perspective sees sex as a focus of norms designed to regulate sexuality so that it facilitates responsible reproduction

Structure functional

From a ____ perspective, we consider that humans are designed for the purpose of transmitting their genes to the next generation

bio social

The interactionist perspective emphasizes the interpersonal negotiation of relationships in the context of

sexual scripts

According to one model (troiden), the process of homosexual constructing their sexual identities occurs in stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

denial

Which standard of non-marital sex reflects "recreational sex"?

permissiveness without affection

Which standard of non-marital sex reflects "recreational sex"?

permissiveness without affection

David and Susan have been married for 20 years. Both are less interested in sex than they were at the beginning of their marriage, and their sexual frequency has declined over this period of time. David and Susan's circumstances reflect what the text refers to as

habituation

HIV/AIDS has now been known for almost _____ years.

twenty-five

Almost _____ people are living with AIDS in the US.

400,000

______ theory posits that during infancy and childhood individuals develop a general style of bonding with others.

Attachment

____ refers to male or female anatomy and physiology and includes the different chromosomal, hormonal, and anatomical components of males and females that are present at birth

Sex

Which of the following is NOT an example given by the text of women in nontraditional roles?

housewife

Consider the statement: "Due to social pressures, firms frequently have to hire under qualified women." This illustrates ____ sexism

modern

According to the text, more and more women are entering nontraditional occupations such as

the military

Our culture has formed a "_____" message, according to which a good wife and/or mother also efficiently attains career success and/or supports children by herself.

Superwoman

The process by which society influences members to internalize attitudes and expectations is called

socialization

The text observers that children imitate models for behavior and re rewarded by parents and others for whatever is perceived as sex-appropriate behavior. This reflects which theory of socialization?

Social learning

Some psychologists think that what comes first is not rules about what boys and girls should do, but rather the child's awareness of being a boy or a girl. This thinking reflects which theory of socialization?

self-identification

Overall, gender schema theorists see genders schema as ______ traditional stereotypes.

maintaining

Which of the following age categories has the least stable marriages?

teenagers

when both spouses come from a divorced family, the probability of their own divorce is higher. Family scholars refer to this phenomenon as the ____ risk.

inter generational transmission of divorce

in terms of mate selection patterns, the US is an example of what cross-cultural researchers call a ____ culture.

free-choice

the ideas of bargaining, market and resources used to describe relationships such as marriage come to us from ____ theory.

exchange

Americans tend to marry people of similar race, age, education, religious background, and social class. This behavior reflects

homo-gamy

When the first meeting is ____, interaction often depends upon physical attraction

face-to-face

Researchers have found it discouraging that about ____ of abusive datingrelationships continue rather than being broken off.

half

Psychologist Lawrence Kurdek has applied ____ theory to whether couple relationships continue.

exchange

During the 1990s, the proportion of cohabitors who eventually married their partners

declined

In 1976, the U.S. total fertility rate dropped to the lowest level ever recorded, which was

1.738

The text points our that in American society, having children is taken for granted, whereas not having children seems to need a justification. This reflects a

pronatalist bias

Traditionally in American Society, children were viewed as

economic assets

An estimate of the cost of raising a child born in 2001 to the age of 18 for middle-income families was

$231,470

What percent of US women surveyed in 2001 said "no" to the question of whether a "woman needs the experience of motherhood to have a complete life?"

70

By, 2002, ____ percent of all births were to unmarried women.

34

which racial/ethic group has the highest proportion of non-marital births?

African American

the increase in childbearing among older single women is largely a ____ phenomenon.

white

of any industrialized country, which nation has by far the highest teen pregnancy, abortion, and birthrates

the United Sates

in 2000, there were more than ____ adopted children in the US households.

2 million

The labor force emerged during the ____

Industrial Revolution

The pronounced tendency for men and women to be employed in different types of jobs is termed

occupation segregation

Women who wored full time in 2006 earned ___ cents for every dollar earned by men

81

Sociologist Jessie Bernard asserted that the ____ role for men emerged in the US during the 1830s

good provider

Today, the statistical norm among married couples is the ____ marriage

two-earner

______ involves the necessary tasks f attending both the emotional needs of all family members and the practical needs of dependent members, as well as maintaining the family domicile

Unpaid family work

University of Michigan researchers cited in the text use the term "____" in nothing that, as men and women are both putting in more hours of employment, the total amount of time a couple spends on housework has declined.

vanishing housework

The term ___ refers to child care provided in a caregiver's home.

family child care

____ involves providing assistance with daily lining activities to an elderly relative who chronically frail, ill, disabled, or just in need of assistance

Elder care

____ involves an employee being able to take extended period of time from work, either paid or unpaid, for maternity, paternity, ill-child and elder-care purposes.

family leave

Alice Rossi has observed that transition to parenthood is more difficult than the transition to other adult roles for several reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

Unlike other adult roles, the transition to parent hood is extremely gradual

An opposite image from "good" father are "____," who "are eschewing even minimal responsibility for their children."

deadbeat dads

Which parenting style is preferred by child psychologists?

authoritative

According to the text, spanking refers to

hitting a child with a open hand without causing physical injury.

Children make up _____ percent of the homeless

one-quarter

The _____ census was the first to offer citizens the option of identifying themselves as more than one race.

2000

Ethnicity is often associated with

religious belief

It is estimated that ___ children under age eighteen are ling in a grandparent's household.

more than 3.6 million

It is estimated that ____ US children are in foster care.

more than 500,0000

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